Cold Weather Concrete

Definition: a period when the average daily ambient temperature is below 40°F (5°C) for more than 3 successive days.
Note: The average daily temperature is the average of the highest and lowest temperature during the period from midnight to midnight. When temperatures above 50°F (10°C) occur during more than half of any 24-hour duration, the period shall no longer be regarded as cold weather.- ACI Concrete Terminology

Cold weather exists when the air temperature has fallen to, or is expected to fall, below 40°F (5°C) during the protection period. The protection period is defined as the time required to prevent concrete from being affected by exposure to cold weather. Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy the intended service requirements when it is properly produced, placed, and protected. The necessary degree of protection increases as the ambient temperature decreases. The objectives of cold weather concreting practices are to prevent damage to concrete due to freezing at early ages, ensure that the concrete develops the required strength for safe removal of forms, maintain curing conditions that foster normal strength development, limit rapid temperature changes, and provide protection consistent with the intended serviceability of the structure.


Carbon Dioxide Emissions Specific to Concrete Production in Cold Regions

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 1/1/2023

Nano-Modified Concrete as Repair Material in Cold Weather

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 3/1/2021

Evaporation of Water from Concrete Surfaces

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 9/1/2006

Specifications for Structural Concrete (ACI 301)

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 1/1/1994

Guide for the Use of Volumetric and Continuous Mixing Concrete Equipment

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 1/1/1991

Evaluation of Cold-Weather Concrete Patching Materials

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 1/1/1989

Proposed Revisions to: Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings

Publication: Structural Journal
Date: 1/1/1989

Cold Weather Concreting

Publication: Materials Journal
Date: 7/1/1988

Proposed Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures & Proposed Specifications for Masonry Structures

Publication: Structural Journal
Date: 1/1/1988

Proposed Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting (ACI 306.1)

Publication: Journal Proceedings
Date: 11/1/1986

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Practice oriented papers and articles ON COLD WEATHER CONCRETE

Combined Use of Calcium Nitrate and Fly Ash to Build ASR-Free Concrete Industrial Floors

Publication: Special Publication
Date: 7/1/2022

Concrete Q&A: Compressive Strength of Cores and Specification Compliance

Publication: Concrete International
Date: 12/1/2020

Nano-Modified Concrete Cast and Cured at Freezing Temperature

Publication: Special Publication
Date: 9/20/2019

Energy Selection and Consumption of Cold Region Concrete Production

Publication: Special Publication
Date: 8/10/2018

Kinetics of UHPC Strength Gain at Subfreezing Temperatures

Publication: Special Publication
Date: 8/10/2018

Chemical versus Physical Acceleration of Cement Hydration

Publication: Concrete International
Date: 11/1/2016

Concrete Q & A: Cold Weather Cylinder Protection

Publication: Concrete International
Date: 2/1/2016

Cold Weather Concreting Strategies

Publication: Concrete International
Date: 5/1/2014

How Does a Cold Reinforcing Bar Affect Fresh Concrete?

Publication: Concrete International
Date: 4/1/2014

Field Performance of Portland Cement Pervious Concrete Pavement in Cold Weather Climates

Publication: Special Publication
Date: 12/27/2011

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