440R-07 Report on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures

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Applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as reinforcement for concrete structures have been growing rapidly in recent years. ACI Committee 440 has published design guidelines for internal FRP reinforcement, externally bonded FRP reinforcement for strengthening, prestressed FRP reinforcement, and test methods for FRP products. Although these guidelines exist, new products and applications continue to be developed. Thus, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge on these materials and their application to concrete and masonry structures. The purpose of this report is to act as an introduction to FRP materials in areas where ACI guides exist, and to provide information on the properties and behavior of concrete structures containing FRP in areas where guides are not currently available. If an ACI guide is available, the guide document supersedes information in this report, and the guide should always be followed for design and application purposes. ACI Committee 440 is also in the process of developing new guides and thus the current availability of guides should be checked by the reader. In addition to the material properties of the constituent materials (that is, resins and fibers) and products, current knowledge of FRP applications, such as internal reinforcement including prestressing, external strengthening of concrete and masonry structures, and structural systems, is discussed in detail. The document also addresses durability issues and the effects of extreme events, such as fire and blast. A summary of some examples of field applications is presented.

Keywords: aramid fibers; blast; bridges; buildings; carbon fibers; composite materials; corrosion; design; dowels; ductility; durability; external reinforcement; fatigue; fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP); fibers; fire; glass fiber; masonry; mechanical properties; polymer resin; prestressed concrete; seismic; stay-in-place forms; structural systems; test methods.

Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 440

Publication Year: 2007

Pages: 100

ISBN: 9780870312595

Categories: Fiber-Reinforced Polymers(FRP)

Formats: PDF

Table of Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction and scope


1.2—Historical perspective of FRP composites

Chapter 2—Notation and definitions



Chapter 3—Codes and standards


3.2—Internal FRP reinforcement

3.3—External FRP reinforcement

Chapter 4—Composite materials and processes


4.2—Polymer matrix: resins

4.3—Reinforcing fibers

4.4—Types of reinforcement

4.5—Additives and fillers

4.6—Core materials for sandwich structures


4.8—FRP manufacturing processes

Chapter 5—Properties, test methods, and nondestructive evaluation


5.2—Typical properties of currently available products

5.3—Test methods for mechanical properties

5.4—Durability testing methods

5.5—Nondestructive inspection techniques for FRP materials

Chapter 6—Performance of concrete members with internal FRP reinforcement



6.3—Bond and development of reinforcement

6.4—Fatigue performance

6.5—Members reinforced with FRP grating systems

6.6—Members reinforced with FRP grids

6.7—Pavement applications

Chapter 7—Prestressed concrete members

7.1—FRP tendons


7.3—Flexural behavior

7.4—Fatigue behavior

7.5—Time-dependent behavior

7.6—Ductility and deformability

7.7—Transfer and development length

7.8—Shear behavior

7.9—External tendons

7.10—Prestressed poles

Chapter 8—Repair, strengthening, and retrofitting

8.1—Flexural strengthening with non-prestressed FRP

8.2—Flexural strengthening with prestressed FRP

8.3—Shear strengthening

8.4—Axial strengthening of columns

8.5—Seismic strengthening and retrofitting

8.6—Mechanically fastened fiber-reinforced polymer

(MF-FRP) laminates

8.7—Strengthening using near-surface-mounted FRP reinforcement

8.8—Design procedures

Chapter 9—Structurally integrated stay-in-place FRP forms


9.2—Advantages and limitations of system

9.3—Structural composition of FRP forms

9.4—Fabrication processes of FRP structural forms

9.5—Concrete component

9.6—Construction considerations

9.7—Behavior of axial members

9.8—Behavior of flexural and axial/flexural members

Chapter 10—Masonry applications


10.2—FRP strengthening techniques

10.3—FRP repair and strengthening of masonry

10.4—Design and application considerations

Chapter 11—Durability of FRP used in concrete

11.1—Definition of durability

11.2—Durability of FRP composites

11.3—Internal reinforcement

11.4—External reinforcement

11.5—Structurally integrated stay-in-place (SIP) forms

Chapter 12—Fire and blast effects



12.3—Blast effects

Chapter 13—Field applications

13.1—FRP as internal reinforcement

13.2—Prestressing applications

13.3—External reinforcement

13.4—Masonry applications

13.5—Stay-in-place FRP forms

Chapter 14—Research needs


14.2—Key research needs


Chapter 15—References

15.1—Referenced standards and reports

15.2—Cited references


Any applicable errata are included with individual documents at the time of purchase. Errata are not included for collections or sets of documents such as the Manual of Concrete Practice (MCP). For a listing of and access to all product errata, visit the Errata page.

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