Structural engineers are concerned with the consequences of shrinkage, creep and cracking on the serviceability and durability of their structures. Creep increases deflections, reduces prestress in prestressed concrete elements, and causes redistribution of internal force resultants in redundant structures. Shrinkage can cause warping of slabs on grade due to differential drying and increased deflections of non-symmetrically reinforced concrete elements. Materials scientists are concerned with understanding the basic phenomena and assessing new materials and the effects of admixtures on the mechanical behavior of concrete.
Concrete is an age stiffening material that has little tensile strength, shrinks, and exhibits creep in sealed conditions and additional creep in drying environments. Predicting the amount of shrinkage and deflection that may occur is not easy and is especially complicated in concrete that contains supplementary materials, chemical admixtures, and lightweight aggregates. Supplementary cementing materials and waste products are being used in increasing volumes in response to environmental concerns. Admixtures have been developed to modify the behavior of fresh and hardened concrete. Self consolidating concrete is being used in more applications. A recent development is the marketing of shrinkage reducing admixtures.
This volume contains papers that cover many aspects of shrinkage and creep. Special attention is paid to the development, use, and evaluation of models to predict shrinkage, creep, and deflection, while other papers consider the behavior of early-age concretes that are restrained from shrinking. Additional highlights include a field assessment of creep and shrinkage in concrete structures, early-age tensile stress development, and experimental results to quantify differential drying and thermal deflections in slabs.
Table of Contents
SP-227-1: Managing Deflection, Shortening and Crack Arising from Restrained Contraction by S.J. Alexander
SP-227-2: AS3600 Creep and Shrinkage Models for Normal and High Strength Concrete
SP-227-3: Sensitivity of the Models for Predicting Shrinkage of Concrete by A. Al-Manaseer and S. Ristanovic
SP-227-4: Deviations from the Principle of Superposition and their Consequences on Structural Behavior by S. Staquet and B. Espion
SP-227-5: Design Implication of Creep and Shrinkage in Integral Abutment Bridges by M. Arockiasamy and M. Sivakumar
SP-227-6: A Rational Approach to the Analysis of Structural Effects due to Creep by M. A. Chiorino
SP-227-7: Shrinkage and Creep Predictions Evaluated using 10-year Monitoring of the North Halawa Valley Viaduct by I. N. Roberston and X. Li
SP-227-8: Tension Cracking in Columns Under Compression Loads by D.J. Carreira
SP-227-9: Estimating Time-Dependent Deformations of Prestressed Elements: Accuracy and Variability by M.W. Paulsen, S.D.B. Alexander, and D.M. Rogowsky
SP-227-10: Shrinkage of Virginia Transportation Concrete Mixtures by D.W. Mokarem, R.E. Weyers, and M.M. Sprinkel
SP-227-11: Design Aids for the Evaluation of Creep Induced Structural Effects by M. Sassone and M.A. Chiorino
SP-227-12: Effect of Modulus of Elasticity on Creep Prediction of High Strength Concrete Containing Pozzolans by N. Suksawang and H.H. Nassif
SP-227-13: Shrinkage Behavior and Residual Stress Development in Mortar Containing Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures (SRA's) by B. Pease, H. Shah, and J. Weiss
SP-227-14: Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Under Restrained Shrinkage by H.T. See and E.K. Attiogbe
SP-227-15: Long-Term Creep and Shrinkage in High-Strength Lightweight Concrete by M. Lopez, L. Kahn, K. Kurtis, and B. Buchberg
SP-227-16: Stress Relaxation of Concrete Under Autogenous Early-Age Restrained Shrinkage by M. Pigeon, B. Bissonette, J. Marchand, D. Boily, and L. Barcelo
SP-227-17: Modeling Early Age Tension Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete by M.D.D'Ambrosia and D.A. Lange
SP-227-18: Evaluation of Thermal Warping in Pavements by M.A. Miltenberger, E.K. Attiogbe, and A.R. Stoddard.