Slab Combination Pack

Slab Combination Pack

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This pack contains the following ACI documents:

-ACI 302.1R-15: Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction

-ACI 302.2R-06: Guide for Concrete Slabs that Receive Moisture-Sensitive Flooring Materials

-ACI 360R-10: Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground

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Description

ACI 302.1R-15:

The quality of a concrete floor or slab is highly dependent on achieving a hard and durable surface that is flat, relatively free of cracks, and at the proper grade and elevation. Properties of the surface are determined by the mixture proportions and the quality of the concreting and jointing operations. The timing of concreting operations—especially finishing, jointing, and curing—is critical. Failure to address this issue can contribute to undesirable characteristics in the wearing surface such as cracking, low resistance to wear, dusting, scaling, high or low spots, poor drainage, and increasing the potential for curling.

Concrete floor slabs employing portland cement, regardless of slump, will start to experience a reduction in volume as soon as they are placed. This phenomenon will continue as long as any water, heat, or both, is being released to the surroundings. Moreover, because the drying and cooling rates at the top and bottom of the slab are not the same, the shrinkage will vary throughout the depth, causing the as-cast shape to be distorted and reduced in volume.

This guide contains recommendations for controlling random cracking and edge curling caused by the concrete’s normal volume change. Application of present technology permits only a reduction in cracking and curling, not elimination. Even with the best floor designs and proper construction, it is unrealistic to expect completely crack- and curl-free floors. Consequently, every owner should be advised by both the designer and contractor that it is completely normal to expect some amount of cracking and curling on every project, and that such an occurrence does not necessarily reflect adversely on either the adequacy of the floor’s design or the quality of its construction (Ytterberg 1987).

This guide describes how to produce high-quality concrete slabs-on-ground and suspended floors for various classes of service. It emphasizes such aspects of construction as site preparation, concrete materials, concrete mixture proportions, concrete workmanship, joint construction, load transfer across joints, form stripping procedures, finishing methods, and curing. Flatness/levelness requirements and measurements are outlined. A thorough preconstruction meeting is critical to facilitate communication among key participants and to clearly establish expectations and procedures that will be employed during construction to achieve the floor qualities required by the project specifications. Adequate supervision and inspection are required for job operations, particularly those of finishing.

ACI 302.2R-06

This guide contains materials, design, and construction recommendations for concrete slabs-on-ground and suspended slabs that are to receive moisture-sensitive flooring materials. These flooring materials include sheet rubber, epoxy coatings, vinyl composition tile, sheet vinyl, carpet, athletic flooring, laminates, and hardwood. Chapters 1 through 8 provide an understanding of concrete moisture behavior and drying, and show how recommended construction practices can contribute to successful performance of floor covering materials. This background provides a basis for the recommendations in Chapter 9 to improve performance of floor covering materials in contact with concrete moisture and alkalinity.

Because this guide is specific to floor moisture problems and solutions, refer to the most current editions of both ACI 302.1R, “Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction,” and ACI 360R, “Design of Slabs-on-Ground,” for general information. These two documents contain guidance on floor design and construction that is needed to achieve successful floor covering performance.

ACI 360R-10

This guide presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. It addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion of the types of slabs, soil-support systems, loadings, and jointing. Design methods are given for unreinforced concrete, reinforced concrete, shrinkage-compensating concrete, post-tensioned concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground, and slabs-on-ground in refrigerated buildings, followed by information on shrinkage and curling.

Advantages and disadvantages of these slab design methods are provided, including the ability of some slab designs to minimize cracking and curling more than others. Even with the best slab designs and proper construction, it is unrealistic to expect crack-free and curl-free floors. Every owner should be advised by the designer and contractor that it is normal to expect some cracking and curling on every project. This does not necessarily reflect adversely on the adequacy of the floor’s design or quality of construction. Design examples are given.

 

Document Details

Publication Year: 2007

Formats: Printed Document or Protected PDF/Web View

Table of Contents

ACI 302.1R-04:

Chapter 1—Introduction

1.1—Purpose and scope

1.2—Terminology

1.3—Related work of other committees

Chapter 2—Classes of floors

2.1—Classification of floors

2.2—Single-course monolithic floors: Classes 1, 2, 4, 5,and 6

2.3—Two-course floors: Classes 3, 7, and 8

2.4—Class 9 floors

2.5—Special finish floors

Chapter 3—Design considerations

3.1—Scope

3.2—Slabs-on-ground

3.3—Suspended slabs

3.4—Miscellaneous details

Chapter 4—Site preparation and placing environment

4.1—Soil-support system preparation

4.2—Suspended slabs

4.3—Bulkheads

4.4—Setting screed guides

4.5—Installation of auxiliary materials

4.6—Concrete placement conditions

Chapter 5—Materials

5.1—Introduction

5.2—Concrete

5.3—Portland cement

5.4—Aggregates

5.5—Water

5.6—Curing materials

5.7—Admixtures

5.8—Liquid surface treatments

5.9—Reinforcement

5.10—Evaporation reducers

5.11—Gloss-imparting waxes

5.12—Joint materials

5.13—Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

Chapter 6—Concrete properties and consistency

6.1—Concrete properties

6.2—Recommended concrete mixture

6.3—Concrete mixture analysis

Chapter 7—Batching, mixing, and transporting

7.1—Batching

7.2—Mixing

7.3—Transporting

Chapter 8—Placing, consolidating, and finishing

8.1—Placing operations

8.2—Tools for spreading, consolidating, and finishing

8.3—Spreading, consolidating, and finishing operations

8.4—Finishing Class 1, 2, and 3 floors

8.5—Finishing Class 4 and 5 floors

8.6—Finishing Class 6 floors and monolithic-surface treatments for wear resistance

8.7—Finishing Class 7 floors

8.8—Finishing Class 8 floors (two-course unbonded)

8.9—Finishing Class 9 floors

8.10—Toppings for precast floors

8.11—Finishing lightweight concrete

8.12—Nonslip floors

8.13—Decorative and nonslip treatments

8.14—Grinding as a repair procedure

8.15—Floor flatness and levelness

8.16—Treatment when bleeding is a problem

8.17—Delays in cold-weather finishing

Chapter 9—Curing, protection, and joint filling

9.1—Purpose of curing

9.2—Methods of curing

9.3—Curing at joints

9.4—Curing special concrete

9.5—Length of curing

9.6—Preventing plastic-shrinkage cracking

9.7—Curing after grinding

9.8—Protection of slab during construction

9.9—Temperature drawdown in cold storage and freezer rooms

9.10—Joint filling and sealing

Chapter 10—Quality control checklist

10.1—Introduction

10.2—Partial list of important items to be observed

Chapter 11—Causes of floor and slab surface imperfections

11.1—Introduction

11.2—Cracking

11.3—Low wear resistance

11.4—Dusting

11.5—Scaling

11.6—Popouts

11.7—Blisters and delamination

11.8—Spalling

11.9—Discoloration

11.10—Low spots and poor drainage

11.11—Curling

11.12—Analysis of surface imperfections

Chapter 12—References

12.1—Referenced standards and reports

12.2—Cited references

12.3—Other references

ACI 302.2R-06

CONTENTS

Chapter 1—Introduction and background

1.1—Introduction

1.2—Flooring moisture issues

1.3—Concrete slabs that receive flooring materials

1.4—Changes in construction methods and materials that affect floor systems

1.5—Floor flatness changes with time

1.6—Other considerations

Chapter 2—Concrete moisture basics

2.1—Introduction

2.2—Moisture movement

2.3—Concrete drying profiles

2.4—Effects of moisture movement

2.5—Equilibrium moisture content

2.6—Drying and wetting of concrete

2.7—Moisture loss during drying

Chapter 3—Concrete moisture testing

3.1—Introduction

3.2—Standard guides and test methods

3.3—Qualitative and quantitative tests

3.4—Test parameters

3.5—Underlayment testing

3.6—Comments on moisture vapor emission rate tests

Chapter 4—Concrete pH testing

4.1—Introduction

4.2—Test methods

4.3—ASTM test differences

4.4—Factors affecting pH test results

Chapter 5—Floor covering and adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations

5.1—Introduction

5.2—Manufacturer’s recommendations

5.3—Dealing with multiple floor covering requirements

Chapter 6—Drying of concrete

6.1—Introduction

6.2—Concrete drying with no external source of moisture

6.3—Concrete drying: exposed to moisture from below

6.4—Concrete drying: exposed to moisture from above

6.5—Concrete drying from both sides

6.6—Effect of concrete-making materials

6.7—Effect of fresh and hardened concrete properties

6.8—Effect of thickness

6.9—Effect of curing

6.10—Drying of mature concrete

6.11—Effect of drying environment

6.12—Drying at exposed edge

6.13—Drying of lightweight concrete

Chapter 7—Vapor retarder/barrier

7.1—Introduction

7.2—Vapor retarder/barrier location

7.3—Vapor transmission through retarder/barrier

Chapter 8—Floor covering materials

8.1—Introduction

8.2—Communication between architect and engineer

8.3—Floor covering technical resources

8.4—Floor adhesives and coverings

8.5—Effect of moisture in flooring adhesives

8.6—Effect of concrete moisture on adhesive performance

Chapter 9—Design and construction recommendations

9.1—Introduction

9.2—Testing

9.3—Vapor retarder/barrier

9.4—Concrete materials

9.5—Concrete properties

9.6—Surface finish

9.7—Curing

9.8—Surface preparation

9.9—Repairs

9.10—Protection

9.11—Moisture mitigation

Chapter 10—References

10.1—Referenced standards and reports

10.2—Cited references

Appendix—Two case studies of moisture-related flooring problems

A.1—Value engineering results in flooring failure

A.2—Postconstruction trench drains results in flooring failure

ACI 360R-10

Contents:

Chapter 1—Introduction

1.1—Purpose and scope

1.2—Work of ACI Committee 360 and other relevant committees

1.3—Work of non-ACI organizations

1.4—Design theories for slabs-on-ground

1.5—Construction document information

1.6—Further research

Chapter 2—Definitions

2.1—Definitions

Chapter 3—Slab types

3.1—Introduction

3.2—Slab types

3.3—General comparison of slab types

3.4—Design and construction variables

3.5—Conclusion

Chapter 4—Soil support systems for slabs-on-ground

4.1—Introduction

4.2—Geotechnical engineering reports

4.3—Subgrade classification

4.4—Modulus of subgrade reaction

4.5—Design of slab-support system

4.6—Site preparation

4.7—Inspection and site testing of slab support

4.8—Special slab-on-ground support problems

Chapter 5—Loads

5.1—Introduction

5.2—Vehicular loads

5.3—Concentrated loads

5.4—Distributed loads

5.5—Line and strip loads

5.6—Unusual loads

5.7—Construction loads

5.8—Environmental factors

5.9—Factors of safety

Chapter 6—Joints

6.1—Introduction

6.2—Load-transfer mechanisms

6.3—Sawcut contraction joints

6.4—Joint protection

6.5—Joint filling and sealing

Chapter 7—Design of unreinforced concrete slabs

7.1—Introduction

7.2—Thickness design methods

7.3—Shear transfer at joints

7.4—Maximum joint spacing

Chapter 8—Design of slabs reinforced for crack-width control

8.1—Introduction

8.2—Thickness design methods

8.3—Reinforcement for crack-width control only

Chapter 9—Design of shrinkage-compensating concrete slabs

9.1—Introduction

9.2—Thickness determination

9.3—Reinforcement

9.4—Other considerations

Chapter 10—Design of post-tensioned slabs-on-ground

10.1—Introduction

10.2—Applicable design procedures

10.3—Slabs post-tensioned for crack control

10.4—Industrial slabs with post-tensioned reinforcement for structural support

Chapter 11—Fiber-reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground

11.1—Introduction

11.2—Synthetic fiber reinforcement

11.3—Steel fiber reinforcement

Chapter 12—Structural slabs-on-ground supporting building code loads

12.1—Introduction

12.2—Design considerations

Chapter 13—Design of slabs for refrigerated facilities

13.1—Introduction

13.2—Design and specification considerations

13.3—Temperature drawdown

Chapter 14—Reducing effects of slab shrinkage and curling

14.1—Introduction

14.2—Drying and thermal shrinkage

14.3—Curling and warping

14.4—Factors that affect shrinkage and curling

14.5—Compressive strength and shrinkage

14.6—Compressive strength and abrasion resistance

14.7—Removing restraints to shrinkage

14.8—Base and vapor retarders/barriers

14.9—Distributed reinforcement to reduce curling and number of joints

14.10—Thickened edges to reduce curling

14.11—Relation between curing and curling

14.12—Warping stresses in relation to joint spacing

14.13—Warping stresses and deformation

14.14—Effect of eliminating sawcut contraction joints with post-tensioning or shrinkage-compensating concrete

14.15—Summary and conclusions

Chapter 15—References

15.1—Referenced standards and reports

15.2—Cited references

Appendix 1—Design examples using Portland Cement Association method

A1.1—Introduction

A1.2—The PCA thickness design for single-axle load

A1.3—The PCA thickness design for slab with post loading

A1.4—Other PCA design information

Appendix 2—Slab thickness design by Wire Reinforcement Institute method

A2.1—Introduction

A2.2—The WRI thickness selection for single-axle wheel load

A2.3—The WRI thickness selection for aisle moment due to uniform loading

Appendix 3—Design examples using Corps of Engineers’ charts

A3.1—Introduction

A3.2—Vehicle wheel loading

A3.3—Heavy lift truck loading

Appendix 4—Slab design using post-tensioning

A4.1—Design example: Post-tensioning to minimize cracking

A4.2—Design example: Equivalent tensile stress design

Appendix 5—Design example using shrinkagecompensating concrete

A5.1—Introduction

A5.2—Example selecting the optimum amount of reinforcement to maximize the compressive stress in the

concrete where the slab thickness, the joint spacing, and prism expansion are known

Appendix 6—Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on- ground using yield line method

A6.1—Introduction

A6.2—Assumptions and design criteria

Appendix 7—Construction document information

A7.1—Introduction

A7.2—Example design criteria

A7.3—Typical details

Conversion factors

ERRATA INFO

Any applicable errata are included with individual documents at the time of purchase. Errata are not included for collections or sets of documents such as the ACI Collection. For a listing of and access to all product errata, visit the Errata page.

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