CCS-1(10) Slabs on Ground

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The concrete craftsman can greatly influence the quality, durability, and appearance of the finished product. This manual from the ACI Concrete Craftsman Series presents information on concrete that should be useful to concrete craftsmen and deals mainly with construction practices relating to slabs-on-ground. This information can be used to train concrete craftsmen and is especially useful for those interested in earning credentials as ACI certified finishers.

Information in this manual is a guide to good practice but does not supersede the provisions in the plans and specifications for any project. If provisions in the plans and specifications vary from the guidance given in this manual, discuss the variances with the design professional. For more detailed information, also read ACI 302.1R, “Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction,” and other documents listed in the reference section of this manual. Prior editions of this manual included a considerable amount of information on concrete materials and testing. For expanded coverage of materials and testing information, the reader is referred to The Contractor’s Guide to Quality Concrete Construction (ASCC-1), published jointly by the American Society of Concrete Contractors (ASCC) and ACI.

This manual was first issued under the guidance of the ACI Educational Activities Committee in 1982 as the first book in the ACI Concrete Craftsman Series. A second edition was approved and issued in 1994. Since1987, when ACI launched the Concrete Flatwork Finisher/Technician certification program, ACI has been using this document as the primary reference for that program. The certification program was designed to provide a basis for certifying concrete finishers and to improve the quality of concrete construction. As a result of program growth, more than 7500 people have become certified Concrete Flatwork Finishers/Technicians.Some major retailers now specify that contractors constructing concretefloors for their stores have certified ACI Flatwork Finishers on site performing the work.

ACI Committee 301, Specifications for Concrete, took a major step toward formally recognizing the value of using ACI-certified finishers and technicians when, in 2002, they approved language in ACI 301, “Specifications for Concrete,” that states in part, “…Unless otherwise permitted, a minimum of one finisher or finishing supervisor shall be a certified ACI Flatwork Finisher/Technician or a certified Flatwork Technician as defined in ACI CP-10 or equivalent.” This was the first time ACI Committee 301 had included language requiring the use of qualified flatwork finishers for concrete placement.

ARCOM, a partner of the American Institute of Architects, also includes optional language in their MASTERSPEC® Specification System requiring cast-in-place concrete installers to be certified ACI Flatwork Finishers and Technicians, and installer supervisors to also be certified ACI Flat-work Technicians.


Document Details

Publication Year: 2009

Pages: 68

ISBN: 9780870313585

Categories: Construction Practices, Slabs

Formats: Printed Document

Table of Contents

Chapter 1—Planning for slab-on-ground placement


Specification requirements

Determining the size of concrete placements

Ordering concrete

Concrete delivery


Size of placing and finishing crews

Preconstruction meeting

Chapter 2—Concrete materials, mixture proportioning, and control tests

Portland cements

Supplementary cementitious materials

Blended cements


Maximum size of aggregate

Aggregate grading

Harmful substances in aggregate

Mixing water


Mixture proportioning

Control tests

Chapter 3—Preparation before placing concrete

Subgrade preparation

Compaction around buried pipes and excavations

Establishing grades

Placement sequence

Setting side forms and screed guides

Vapor retarders or barriers

Reinforcement for shrinkage control

Bulkheads and jointing

Checklist of tools and materials

Chapter 4—Floor flatness and levelness

Measuring floor flatness and levelness

The 10 ft (3 m) straightedge method

F-number system

Factors affecting floor flatness and levelness

Chapter 5—Placing equipment

Placing concrete directly from truck mixers

Manual or motorized buggies

Crane and bucket

Concrete conveyors

Concrete pumps

Chapter 6—Placing and finishing tools and equipment

Spreading tools

Consolidating or vibrating tools

Laser-guided screeds

Hand screeding tools

Tools for smoothing after screeding

Jointing and edging tools

Hand floats and trowels

Power floats and trowels

Power saws

Chapter 7—Procedures for finishing slabs-onground

Striking off (screeding) the concrete

Bull floating or darbying

Highway-type straightedging

Waiting period

Edging and jointing




Machine float and trowel direction and patterns

Floating-to-troweling sequence

Finishing when setting time varies from load to load

Floating edges

Walk-behind basics

Hand floating and troweling

Blade tilt

Chapter 8—Jointing

Isolation joints

Contraction joints

Construction joints

Joint filling

Chapter 9—Curing and protection of concrete

Importance of curing

When to start curing

Curing methods

Effects of high temperatures on concrete

Causes and prevention of plastic shrinkage cracking

Effects of low temperatures on concrete

Chapter 10—Finishing problems and possible solutions

Excessive or insufficient bleeding

Slow setting

Surface crusting



Fast setting

Erratic setting

Sticky concrete

Rained-on surfaces

Random cracking

Craze cracking






Any applicable errata are included with individual documents at the time of purchase. Errata are not included for collections or sets of documents such as the ACI Collection. For a listing of and access to all product errata, visit the Errata page.

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