440.2R-08 Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures

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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems for strengthening concrete structures are an alternative to traditional strengthening techniques, such as steel plate bonding, section enlargement, and external post-tensioning. FRP strengthening systems use FRP composite materials as supplemental externally bonded reinforcement. FRP systems offer advantages over traditional strengthening techniques: they are lightweight, relatively easy to install, and are noncorrosive. Due to the characteristics of FRP materials as well as the behavior of members strengthened with FRP, specific guidance on the use of these systems is needed. This document offers general information on the history and use of FRP strengthening systems; a description of the unique material properties of FRP; and committee recommendations on the engineering, construction, and inspection of FRP systems used to strengthen concrete structures. The proposed guidelines are based on the knowledge gained from experimental research, analytical work, and field applications of FRP systems used to strengthen concrete structures.

Keywords: aramid fibers; bridges; buildings; carbon fibers; concrete;

corrosion; crack widths; cracking; cyclic loading; deflection; development

length; earthquake-resistant; fatigue; fiber-reinforced polymers; flexure;

shear; stress; structural analysis; structural design; torsion.


Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 440

Publication Year: 2008

Pages: 76

ISBN: 9780870312854

Categories: Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Formats: Protected PDF/Web View

This document is Historical

Table of Contents


Chapter 1—Introduction and scope


1.2—Scope and limitations

1.3—Applications and use

1.4—Use of FRP systems

Chapter 2—Notation and definitions


2.2—Definitions and acronyms

Chapter 3—Background information

3.1—Historical development

3.2—Commercially available externally bonded FRP systems


Chapter 4—Constituent materials and properties

4.1—Constituent materials

4.2—Physical properties

4.3—Mechanical properties

4.4—Time-dependent behavior


4.6—FRP systems qualification


Chapter 5—Shipping, storage, and handling




Chapter 6—Installation

6.1—Contractor competency

6.2—Temperature, humidity, and moisture considerations


6.4—Substrate repair and surface preparation

6.5—Mixing of resins

6.6—Application of FRP systems

6.7—Alignment of FRP materials

6.8—Multiple plies and lap splices

6.9—Curing of resins

6.10—Temporary protection

Chapter 7—Inspection, evaluation, and acceptance


7.2—Evaluation and acceptance

Chapter 8—Maintenance and repair


8.2—Inspection and assessment

8.3—Repair of strengthening system

8.4—Repair of surface coating


Chapter 9—General design considerations

9.1—Design philosophy

9.2—Strengthening limits

9.3—Selection of FRP systems

9.4—Design material properties

Chapter 10—Flexural strengthening

10.1—Nominal strength

10.2—Reinforced concrete members

10.3—Prestressed concrete members

Chapter 11—Shear strengthening

11.1—General considerations

11.2—Wrapping schemes

11.3—Nominal shear strength

11.4—FRP contribution to shear strength

Chapter 12—Strengthening of members subjected to axial force or combined axial and bending forces

12.1—Pure axial compression

12.2—Combined axial compression and bending

12.3—Ductility enhancement

12.4—Pure axial tension

Chapter 13—FRP reinforcement details

13.1—Bond and delamination

13.2—Detailing of laps and splices

13.3—Bond of near-surface-mounted systems

Chapter 14—Drawings, specifications, and submittals

14.1—Engineering requirements

14.2—Drawings and specifications



Chapter 15—Design examples

15.1—Calculation of FRP system tensile properties

15.2—Comparison of FRP systems’ tensile properties

15.3—Flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with FRP laminates

15.4—Flexural strengthening of an interior reinforced concrete beam with NSM FRP bars

15.5—Flexural strengthening of an interior prestressed concrete beam with FRP laminates

15.6—Shear strengthening of an interior T-beam

15.7—Shear strengthening of an exterior column

15.8—Strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for axial load increase

15.9—Strengthening of a noncircular concrete column for increase in axial and bending forces

Chapter 16—References

16.1—Referenced standards and reports

16.2—Cited references


Appendix A—Material properties of carbon, glass, and aramid fibers

Appendix B—Summary of standard test methods

Appendix C—Areas of future research

Appendix D—Methodology for computation of simplified P-M interaction diagram for noncircular columns


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