Void spacing in exposed concrete flat-work

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Title: Void spacing in exposed concrete flat-work

Author(s): L.E. Rodway

Publication: Concrete International

Volume: 1

Issue: 2

Appears on pages(s): 83-89

Keywords: cold weather construction; concrete cores; concrete durability; concretes; curing; long-time study; mix proportioning; sidewalks; tests.

Date: 2/1/1979

Abstract:
Exposed sidewalks, curb, and gutter in the city of Calgary were used as examples of a means of improving concrete durability. Nearly 200 items affect durability of concrete both in temperate climates and cold regions. The Calgary concrete was subject to rigorous inspection at the time of placing, and each year, for 25 years. At placing it met standard compressive strength requirements, the plastic entrained air requirements, and slump, i.e., it had con-ventionally accepted specifications and materials, and was subjected to conventional enforcement. It was estimated that up to 16 percent of this type of concrete placed in the 25 years prior to 1972 had failed because of scaling, spalling, pitting, and general lack of durability. [Author]