Influence of Ties on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns
James F. Pfister
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To aid development of the 1963 ACI Building Code, 11 rectangular tied columns were tested under concentric load to explore the influence of arrangement and spacing of lateral ties on the strength and behavior of tied columns. In three of the columns, full ties were provided as required by the 1956 Code, and in another three columns only exterior ties were used. Two columns had ties only at the ends and at midheight of the columns, and three columns were provided with ties only at their ends. It was found that the primary function of the ties was to restrain the concrete laterally so that it could develop its full strength in a gradual type of compression failure. Exterior ties surrounding the longitudinal reinforcement were found to be as effective as combined interior and exterior ties conforming to the 1956 Code. It is concluded that the new tie requirements of the 1963 Code should be entirely adequate.