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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: The Use of a Finely-Divided Mining By-Product in RCC for Dam Construction
Author(s): Richard Gagne, Danielle Martin, Francine A. Blais,
Alain Prezeau and Salsutio Guzman
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 103-118
Keywords: Compressive strength; heat of hydration; modulus of elasticity;
permeability; roller compacted concrete; vebe tests
Abstract:The ore enrichment process used by QIT Fer et Titane of Sorel, Quebec, Canada generates a mining by-product referred to as OPP fmes (Ore Pretreatment Plant Fines). It is a fine dark powder, composed mainly of ilmenite, hematite, magnetite, and quartz, with a particle-size distribution similar to ASTM Type I I cement. The aim of this research project was to assess the potential use of OPP fines as a filler material in RCC for dam construction. A three-variable factorial plan of experiment was used to analyze the effects of the total dosage of fine particles (cement + OPP fines), the OPP fines replacement ratio (OPP fines/[ OPP fmes+cement]) and the water/fines (W/[OPP fines+cement]) on the fresh and hardened properties of RCC. The properties evaluated were: Vebe time, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water permeability, and heat of hydration. The research program also included a full-scale field test where approximately 140 m3 of RCC were produced to build an 8 m x 8 m x 2 m slab to evaluate the in situ properties of an RCC containing the OPP fines. This RCC was designed to meet Hydro-Quebec’s typical specifications for dams. The results show that OPP fines is a very effective filler in RCC because its particle-size distribution is very similar to that of the cement. Therefore, a large proportion of the total fines content (cement or fly ash) can be replaced by OPP fines without significantly changing the workability of the RCC. A simple mathematical model, based on the results of the factorial analysis, is proposed to select the total fines content, the OPP fines replacement ratio, and the water/fines ratio of an RCC mixture as a function of the required Vebe time (5 s to 60 s) and 91-d compressive strength (5 to 25 MPa). The results of the in situ testing program show that it is possible to produce an optimized RCC with a 91-d compressive strength of 23 MPa and very low heat generation, when using 120 kg/m3 of cement (ASTM Type II) and 80 kg/m3 of OPP fines (40% OPP fines and 60% cement).
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