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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Comparison of Known and Determined Water-Cement Ratios Using Petrography
Author(s): J. J. Liu and M. S. Khan
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 11-26
Keywords: alkali-silica reaction; concretes; deterioration; freezing and thawing; microscopy; petrography; porosity; water-cement ratio
Abstract:At present, there are no standardized test methods for the determination of water-cement ratio (w/c) of a specimen of hardened concrete. Various methods that have been used include absorption of a water drop on a concrete surface, resistance of cement paste to scratching, polarized-light microscopy, and optical fluorescence microscopy. In these determinations, usually experience and judgment are heavily relied upon. In the absence of a reliable standardized technique, it is prudent to estimate the w/c by using specimens with known w/c and a combination of several techniques, rather than relying on a single technique. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the successes achieved by following this approach. Concrete specimens with w/c of 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 were prepared and analyzed by visual examination, resistance to needle scratching, water absorption, and blue-dyed thin section techniques. This combined technique approach was then used to analyze concrete specimens from the field.
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