Long Term Study of the Influence of the Mineralogical Composition of Cements on Resistance to Seawater: Tests in Artificial Seawater and in the Channel

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Title: Long Term Study of the Influence of the Mineralogical Composition of Cements on Resistance to Seawater: Tests in Artificial Seawater and in the Channel

Author(s): A. M. Palliere, M. Raverdy, and J.J. Serrano

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 145

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 423-444

Keywords: cements; concretes; expansion; harbor structures; strength; mortars (material); seawater; tests; Materials Research

Date: 5/1/1994

Abstract:
In France, a study of the behavior of cements in marine structures was initiated in 1902 with the creation of the Commission on Lime and Cements. This led to the establishment of specifications concerning the composition of cements for projects in the sea, designated as "seawater-setting." Over the years, the specifications have been modified in light of the results of research and full-scale testing in French maritime laboratories. A program of the study of resistance to seawater of cements with different mineralogical compositions was begun in 1975. This program included experiments in artificial seawater in laboratories and in water of the Le Havre Channel, and was to last for 20 years. Its purpose was to examine the behavior of cements at the limits of specifications to either confirm their soundness or make certain modifications. After 15 years, it can be concluded that the accelerated test of swelling on 2 x 2 x 16-cm specimens is sound, since it made possible the elimination of cements containing about 14 percent C 3A after 1 year, demonstrated the influence of SO 3 content at 2 years, and made possible the classification of portland cements according to their long-term behavior as early as 2 years. The results of sonic measurements on concrete specimens exposed to seawater in a tidal zone show the excellent behavior of cement with 80 percent slag and a low-lime content, and of portland cements with a C 3A content of less than 4 percent.