In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Properties of Concretes for Thin Underwater Placements and Repairs
Author(s): Weston T. Hester, Kamal Henry Khayat, Jr.
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 713-732
Keywords: adhesion; admixtures; concretes; durability; fly ash; repairs; silica fume; strength; underwater structures; Materials Research
Abstract:Many marine and hydraulic structures must be constructed and repaired while submerged under water. Frequently, this requires placement of relatively thin (0.5 m or less) layers of concrete to fill voids in exposed surfaces or submerged formwork. Concretes placed underwater should flow readily and with little segregation and resist erosion from underwater currents. The hardened concrete should achieve excellent adhesion to underlying surfaces and develop high strengths. To achieve the desired performance, the concrete should contain a moderate amount of anti-washout admixture, a cement content of approximately 350 kg/m3, 25 kg/m3 of silica fume to enhance durability, and 18 kg/m3 fly ash to improve workability of the fresh concrete. A hard, natural gravel, representing approximately 54 percent of the aggregate content, should be used for wear resistance, and with the lowest possible w/c (0.41 ñ 0.03, typically) consistent with placement requirements, to maintain strengths. Prior to the actual field placement, several rheological and mechanical properties should be determined to insure proper placability, homogeneity, and therefore increase the success probability and cost effectiveness of site trials and subsequent actual field placements.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber