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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Chloride Ion Penetration and Frost Resistance of High-Alumina Cement (HAC) and HAC/Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Concretes in Marine Environments
Author(s): G. J. Osborne and B. Singh
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 295-316
Keywords: blast furnace slag; chlorides; concrete durability; freeze thaw durability; high-alumina cements; seawater; Materials Research
Abstract:Describes the results of marine durability studies carried out on concretes containing high-alumina cement (HAC) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blended cements. Concrete cubes of 100 mm were initially cured for 28 days at 5, 20, and 38 C in water and in air at 20 C prior to their storage in the different marine environments. The specimens were exposed for up to four years in spray, tidal, and full- immersion zones at the Building Research Establishment's marine exposure site on the Thames estuary at Shoeburyness. Chloride penetration data down to depths of 36 mm were determined and evidence of frost damage sought in these non air-entrained concretes after four years of marine exposure. All HAC/GGBFS concretes performed well in terms of their low chloride ingress and excellent frost resistance, irrespective of early curing temperature or marine exposure zone. Most of the plain HAC concrete performed equally well, with the exception of the converted specimens, pre-cured at 38 C prior to storage in seawater. These concretes were frost resistant, but showed some signs of chemical attack and had high levels of chloride at 36 mm depths. The practical significance of these data is discussed.
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