Chloride Ion Penetration and Frost Resistance of High-Alumina Cement (HAC) and HAC/Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Concretes in Marine Environments

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Title: Chloride Ion Penetration and Frost Resistance of High-Alumina Cement (HAC) and HAC/Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Concretes in Marine Environments

Author(s): G. J. Osborne and B. Singh

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 163

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 295-316

Keywords: blast furnace slag; chlorides; concrete durability; freeze thaw durability; high-alumina cements; seawater; Materials Research

Date: 8/1/1996

Abstract:
Describes the results of marine durability studies carried out on concretes containing high-alumina cement (HAC) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blended cements. Concrete cubes of 100 mm were initially cured for 28 days at 5, 20, and 38 C in water and in air at 20 C prior to their storage in the different marine environments. The specimens were exposed for up to four years in spray, tidal, and full- immersion zones at the Building Research Establishment's marine exposure site on the Thames estuary at Shoeburyness. Chloride penetration data down to depths of 36 mm were determined and evidence of frost damage sought in these non air-entrained concretes after four years of marine exposure. All HAC/GGBFS concretes performed well in terms of their low chloride ingress and excellent frost resistance, irrespective of early curing temperature or marine exposure zone. Most of the plain HAC concrete performed equally well, with the exception of the converted specimens, pre-cured at 38 C prior to storage in seawater. These concretes were frost resistant, but showed some signs of chemical attack and had high levels of chloride at 36 mm depths. The practical significance of these data is discussed.