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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Low Cement Content Shotcrete: A Comparison
Author(s): F. J. Wombacher, U. Maeder, and
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1005-1018
Keywords: cement content; durability; pumping; shotcrete; superplasticizers
Abstract:Shotcrete is used worldwide be it for ground strengthening, for tunnel and/or mining applications. Due to the desired properties such as pumpability, reduced rebound, strength development and durability aspects of the shotcrete, usually a higher amount of cement is used than in normal concrete applications. However the necessity of it is not always obvious. Shotcrete mixtures with a range of reduced cement contents are studied in large scale trials using pumping aids. Partially cement was replaced by fly ash and burnt oil-shale. The mixtures are accelerated with an alkali-free powder accelerator. Apart from the fresh and hardened shotcrete properties, the pumping pressure was monitored and the leaching behaviour was investigated. Durability aspects such as sulfate resistance and water impermeability of the mixtures were evaluated. All the results indicate that the use of well proportioned mineral admixtures in combination with the correct chemical admixtures, like high-range water reducers, pumping aids and environmentally friendly alkali-free accelerators, allows the production of well performing and durable shotcrete with a cement content that can be reduced by 50%.
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