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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air Void System in Concrete. Part 3 - Influence of Water-Cement Ratio and Compaction*
Author(s): James E. Backstrom, Richard W. Burrows, Richard C. Mielenz, and Vladimir E. Wolkodoff
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 359-375
Keywords: no keywords
Abstract:Size distribution, frequencv of air voids, spacing factor, and freezing and thawing resistance of concret’e are influenced by many factors, among the most significant being water-cement ratio and degree of compaction. Increased freezing and thawing resistance generally reflects a reduction in void size and spacing factor. Such reductions are obtained, other factors being equal, through reduced water-cement ratio, increased amount of air-entraining agent, and in the case of void size through increased periods of vibration. Reduction of water-cement ratio increases the proportion of air-entraining agent necessary to produce a given air content but the air content required for maxi-mum durability is decreased as the water-cemen.t ratio is decreased. Increasing periods of vibration reduce the total air content and increase the specific surface of air voids, but have relatively little effect on spacing factor. For any one concrete there is an optimum air content and void spacing factor for optimum resistance to freezing and thawing. Spacing factor which obtains at optimum freezing and thawing resis tance of a single may or may not be the smallest in magnitude concrete variously vibrated
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