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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 37 Abstracts search results

Document: 

21-118

Date: 

March 1, 2022

Author(s):

Jie Zhao, Jian-Jun Zheng, Gai-Fei Peng, and Meng-Qi Wang

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

119

Issue:

2

Abstract:

High-strength concrete (HSC) is susceptible to spalling at high temperatures. One reason for this is that vapor pressure builds up in concrete and plays a key role in spalling under certain conditions. However, vapor pressure modeling is still insufficient so far. Steam tables, which bear the actual states of water steam, have never been applied in vapor pressure modeling. In this paper, a meso-scale vapor pressure modeling approach using steam tables is presented. The effects of the thermal decomposition of the cement paste matrix and the vapor phase transfer driven by the gradient of vapor pressure are considered. By applying the theory of poromechanics, the Biot modulus is deduced and the mechanical effect of vapor pressure is modeled. Finally, the distribution and mechanical effect of vapor pressure in a 100 mm (3.94 in.) HSC cube specimen exposed to fire are modeled, and the applicability and effectiveness of the model are presented.

DOI:

10.14359/51734441


Document: 

19-432

Date: 

November 1, 2020

Author(s):

Manar A. Al Fadul and Kevin R. Mackie

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

6

Abstract:

A model that simulates the two-dimensional (2-D) coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena in heated concrete is proposed. A fully implicit finite difference (FD) method was used in the discretization of the partial differential equations in both domain and time. The control volume approach was employed in the formulation of the FD equations, ensuring both local and global conservation properties are satisfied by the numerical solution. The solid, liquid, and gaseous (both air and vapor) phases are considered, including evaporation, condensation, and dehydration. The discretized equations of all species along with the temporal discretization of an interior node, surface node, and corner node are presented. Numerical case studies based on an object-oriented code for extremely rapid heating of concrete and nonsymmetric boundary conditions are validated against experimental results. Temperature, pressure, and moisture contours indicate the model’s ability to capture the complex 2-D behaviors of fire-exposed concrete over the entire flow domain.

DOI:

10.14359/51728122


Document: 

19-449

Date: 

November 1, 2020

Author(s):

Sarah De Carufel, Andrew Fahim, Pouria Ghods, and Rouhollah Aalizadeh

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

6

Abstract:

This paper presents a model developed to predict the internal relative humidity (RH) of concrete during drying. The model makes use of simplified inputs, including the concrete mixture design and the cement Bogue composition, thus making it accessible to engineers and practitioners. These inputs are used to separately determine the permeability of both liquid and vapor phases, hence solving for moisture transport through an empirical derivation of the (de) sorption isotherm, total porosity, and pore tortuosity. The model is validated using previously published literature data as well as experiments designed specifically for model validation. The model was found successful in predicting RH profiles for the validation data with the simple inputs required. However, it was found that in cases where the standardized ASTM F2170 method is used to measure RH, the agreement between the model and experimental data decreases. This was found to be related to errors associated with performing humidity measurements within cavities drilled in concrete. Such errors are discussed, and room for improvement in in-place humidity measurements is proposed. Finally, the model is used to validate the use of RH measurements at a specific concrete depth to evaluate the susceptibility of moisture-sensitive flooring to failures.

DOI:

10.14359/51728146


Document: 

19-320

Date: 

July 1, 2020

Author(s):

Bruce Menu, Thomas Jacob-Vaillancourt, Marc Jolin, and Benoit Bissonnette

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

4

Abstract:

The experimental program reported in this paper sought to evaluate the efficiency of a range of curing methods in view of minimizing the evaporation rate at the surface of freshly placed shotcrete and preventing the detrimental consequences of early-age shrinkage. CSA A23.1-14 states that severe drying conditions should be considered to exist when the surface moisture evaporation rate exceeds 0.50 kg/m2/h (0.1 lb/ft2/h). In fact, the environmental conditions that lead to such evaporation rates are regularly experienced on construction sites, requiring that adequate protection of the concrete surface be carried out in a timely manner after placement. This research effort is aimed at quantifying the influence of selected curing methods upon the early-age moisture loss and the resulting shrinkage. The results show that early-age volume change of freshly sprayed shotcrete can be significantly reduced by adequate surface protection. Among the investigated methods, moist curing is found to be the most effective.

DOI:

10.14359/51724624


Document: 

18-518

Date: 

November 1, 2019

Author(s):

M. R. Sakr, M. T. Bassuoni, and M. Reda Taha

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

116

Issue:

6

Abstract:

In this study, different types of surface coatings were applied to concrete to assess their suitability for resisting physical salt attack (PSA). Concretes with different water-binder ratios (w/b) were tested and severe PSA conditions were implemented, using sodium sulfate, to obtain conclusive trends on the performance of coatings. Visual assessment and mass loss of concrete specimens were used as physical indicators to quantify the damage, while mineralogical and microstructural studies were conducted to elucidate the damage mechanisms. Epoxy, ethyl silicate, and acrylic emulsion coatings were found successful at protecting concrete from PSA regardless of the quality of the substrate concrete, while other coatings tested were highly dependent on the concrete quality. Coatings that permit a high rate of absorption and/or desorption (evaporation) led to more severe PSA damage compared with coatings with low absorption/desorption.

DOI:

10.14359/51718058


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