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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 324 Abstracts search results

Document: 

19-354

Date: 

September 1, 2020

Author(s):

Edward G. Moffatt, Michael D. A. Thomas, Andrew Fahim, and Robert D. Moser

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

5

Abstract:

This paper presents the durability performance of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) exposed to a marine environment for up to 21 years. Concrete specimens (152 x 152 x 533 mm [6 x 6 x 21 in.]) were cast using a water-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) in the range of 0.09 to 0.19, various types and lengths of steel fibers, and the presence of conventional steel reinforcement bars in select mixtures. Laboratory testing included taking cores from each block and determining the existing chloride profile, compressive strength, electrochemical corrosion monitoring, and microstructural evaluation. Regardless of curing treatment and w/cm, the results revealed that UHPC exhibits significantly enhanced durability performance compared with typical high-performance concrete (HPC) and normal concretes. UHPC prisms exhibited minimal surface damage after being exposed to a harsh marine environment for up to 21 years. Chloride profiles revealed penetration to a depth of approximately 10 mm (0.39 in.) regardless of exposure duration. Electrochemical corrosion monitoring also showed passivity for reinforcement at a cover depth of 25 mm (1 in.) following 20 years.

DOI:

10.14359/51727022


Document: 

19-399

Date: 

September 1, 2020

Author(s):

Jun Wang and Yail J. Kim

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

5

Abstract:

This paper presents the characteristics of a cost-effective ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) made of locally available constituents. The implications of steel and synthetic fibers on the shrinkage, maturity, and chloride permeability of the silica-based concrete are of interest. To implement assorted standard test methods, UHPC cylinders and prisms are cast and instrumented. The interaction between the fibers and cement paste affects the shrinkage of UHPC. Owing to the absence of coarse aggregate, the applicability of existing shrinkage models for ordinary concrete is not satisfactory; accordingly, a new expression is proposed. The early-age hydration of cement (less than 1 day) generates thermal energy, depending upon fiber type, which raises the temperature of the concrete. The load-carrying capacity of UHPC mixed with steel fibers is higher than that of UHPC with synthetic fibers. The maturity of UHPC is contingent upon fiber configuration; specifically, plain and steel-fiber-mixed UHPC cylinders show a superior early-age strength gain to those with synthetic fibers. For the Nurse-Saul and the Arrhenius maturity approaches (time temperature factor and equivalent age, respectively), regression equations are fitted. The flow of electric current and the resistivity of UHPC are favorable due to the densely formulated grain structure, leading to the improvement of durability when used for structural application. The diffusion coefficient of UHPC increases as the mixed fibers create interfacial gaps in the cement paste.

DOI:

10.14359/51725978


Document: 

18-339

Date: 

September 1, 2020

Author(s):

Morteza Khatibmasjedi, Sivakumar Ramanathan, Prannoy Suraneni, and Antonio Nanni

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

5

Abstract:

The use of seawater as mixing water in reinforced concrete (RC) is currently prohibited by most building codes due to potential corrosion of conventional steel reinforcement. The issue of corrosion can be addressed by using noncorrosive reinforcement, such as glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). However, the long-term strength development of seawater-mixed concrete in different environments is not clear and needs to be addressed. This study reports the results of an investigation on the effect of different environments (curing regimes) on the compressive strength development of seawater-mixed concrete. Fresh properties of seawater-mixed concrete and concrete mixed with potable water were comparable, except for set times, which were accelerated in seawater-mixed concrete. Concrete cylinders were cast and exposed to subtropical environment (outdoor exposure), tidal zone (wet-dry cycles), moist curing (in a fog room), and seawater at 60°C (140°F) (submerged in a tank). Under these conditions, seawater-mixed concrete showed similar or better performance when compared to reference concrete. Specifically, when exposed to seawater at 60°C (140°F), seawater-mixed concrete shows higher compressive strength development than reference concrete, with values at 24 months being 14% higher. To explain strength development of such mixtures, further detailed testing was done. In this curing regime, the seawater-mixed concrete had 33% higher electrical resistivity than the reference concrete. In addition, the reference concrete showed calcium hydroxide leaching, with 30% difference in calcium hydroxide values between bulk and surface. Reference concrete absorbed more fluid and had a lower dry density, presumably due to greater seawater absorption. Seawater-mixed concrete performed better than reference concrete due to lower leaching because of a reduction in ionic gradients between the pore solution and curing solution. These results suggest that seawater-mixed concrete can potentially show better performance when compared to reference concrete for marine and submerged applications.

DOI:

10.14359/51725973


Document: 

19-347

Date: 

September 1, 2020

Author(s):

Yusheng Zeng, Ser Tong Quek, Aiping Tang, and Xianyu Zhou

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

5

Abstract:

Freezing-and-thawing (F-T) resistance is a key parameter in evaluating the durability of concrete. The response of concrete under F-T environment varies depending on the mixture proportion and materials used. This paper focuses on the F-T behavior and damage resistance of normal-strength (NC), high-strength (HSC), high-performance (HPC), and ultra-high-performance (UHPC) concrete. The mechanisms causing F-T damage are discussed, specifically based on expansion of freezable water under negative temperature and thermal stress arising from differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion of cement and aggregates. To quantify damage, two parameters—namely, mass loss ratio (MLR) and relative dynamic elastic modulus (RDEM)—are compiled for different classes of concrete. Results show that UHPC exhibited much lower increase in MLR and reduction in RDEM than NC and HPC, respectively. The effects of F-T loading on other mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength and stress-strain relationship are also investigated in this paper as possible parameters to help characterize F-T resistance. It is found that F-T will decrease the peak stress but increase the peak strain, and the flexural strength has the fastest loss rate for NC, HPC, HSC and UHPC, respectively. As concrete under F-T environment is often exposed to chloride, the significance of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration and chloride diffusion coefficient (CDC) on HSC and UHPC under NaCl solution are studied. UHPC exhibits better resistance on chloride diffusion after F-T action due to denser internal pore structure. To improve the F-T resistance of concrete, the performance of two supplementary cementitious admixtures, fly ash and silica fume, to partially replace cement are studied. Results show that the appropriate fly ash replacement of 10 to 30% or silica fume replacement of 5 to 10% is found to enhance the F-T resistance. In addition, introducing fibers such as PVA or PP can improve the F-T resistance significantly, although using the wrong proportion may have a negative effect. Using combined admixture of polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene fiber with 1.5% volume in cement-based composites reduces strength degradation caused by F-T loadings.

DOI:

10.14359/51725781


Document: 

19-328

Date: 

July 1, 2020

Author(s):

Jedadiah F. Burroughs, Charles A. Weiss Jr., John E. Haddock, and W. Jason Weiss

Publication:

Materials Journal

Volume:

117

Issue:

4

Abstract:

This study presents the application of an analytical model to describe the rheological behavior of cement pastes containing silica fume at replacement rates of up to 30% by mass. The analytical model hypothesizes how water interacts with particles in a cementitious system. The coating thickness of water surrounding each particle in the system is estimated. This coating thickness is shown to correlate strongly with measured rheological properties when fit to the Herschel-Bulkley model. To calculate coating thickness, it is necessary to account for the water absorbed by nonhydraulic components in the system, whether aggregate, supplementary cementitious materials, or mineral. The results suggest that silica fume particles may be absorptive, and this absorption capacity, although small, must be considered when designing water-starved cementitious materials. The experimental investigation involved the rheological testing of three water-binder ratios (0.20, 0.30, 0.45), three silica fume replacement levels (10%, 20%, 30%), and eight different silica fume products.

DOI:

10.14359/51724626


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