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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 266 Abstracts search results
September 1, 2020
Edward G. Moffatt, Michael D. A. Thomas, Andrew Fahim, and Robert D. Moser
This paper presents the durability performance of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) exposed to a marine environment for up to 21 years. Concrete specimens (152 x 152 x 533 mm [6 x 6 x 21 in.]) were cast using a water-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) in the range of 0.09 to 0.19, various types and lengths of steel fibers, and the presence of conventional steel reinforcement bars in select mixtures. Laboratory testing included taking cores from each block and determining the existing chloride profile, compressive strength, electrochemical corrosion monitoring, and microstructural evaluation. Regardless of curing treatment and w/cm, the results revealed that UHPC exhibits significantly enhanced durability performance compared with typical high-performance concrete (HPC) and normal concretes. UHPC prisms exhibited minimal surface damage after being exposed to a harsh marine environment for up to 21 years. Chloride profiles revealed penetration to a depth of approximately 10 mm (0.39 in.) regardless of exposure duration.
Electrochemical corrosion monitoring also showed passivity for reinforcement at a cover depth of 25 mm (1 in.) following 20 years.
Morteza Khatibmasjedi, Sivakumar Ramanathan, Prannoy Suraneni, and Antonio Nanni
The use of seawater as mixing water in reinforced concrete (RC) is currently prohibited by most building codes due to potential corrosion of conventional steel reinforcement. The issue of corrosion can be addressed by using noncorrosive reinforcement, such as glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). However, the long-term strength development of seawater-mixed concrete in different environments is not clear and needs to be addressed. This study reports the results of an investigation on the effect of different environments (curing regimes) on the compressive strength development of seawater-mixed concrete. Fresh properties of seawater-mixed concrete and concrete mixed with potable water were comparable, except for set times, which were accelerated in seawater-mixed concrete. Concrete cylinders were cast and exposed to subtropical environment (outdoor exposure), tidal zone (wet-dry cycles), moist curing (in a fog room), and seawater at 60°C (140°F) (submerged in a tank). Under these conditions, seawater-mixed concrete showed similar or better performance when compared to reference concrete. Specifically, when exposed to seawater at 60°C (140°F), seawater-mixed concrete shows higher compressive strength development than reference concrete, with values at 24 months being 14% higher. To explain strength development of such mixtures, further detailed testing was done. In this curing regime, the seawater-mixed concrete had 33% higher electrical resistivity than the reference concrete. In addition, the reference concrete showed calcium hydroxide leaching, with 30% difference in calcium hydroxide values between bulk and surface. Reference concrete absorbed more fluid and had a lower dry density, presumably due to greater seawater absorption. Seawater-mixed concrete performed better than reference concrete due to lower leaching because of a reduction in ionic gradients between the pore solution and curing solution. These results suggest that seawater-mixed concrete can potentially show better performance when compared to reference concrete for marine and submerged applications.
D. Marcon Neto, C. Effting, A. Schackow, I. R. Gomes, G. Aurélio Cifuentes, and D. Ganasini
In this work, concretes with high levels of fly ash replacing portland cement were elaborated. The concretes’ properties in the fresh state (consistency, workability, and heat of hydration) and in the hardened state (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, conductivity, void index, water absorption, and density) were measured. Microstructural and thermal characterization were performed. Numerical simulations were performed to analyze the heat exchange during the cement hydration process. Statistical analysis was adequate, and a proposed regression model was validated for the high-volume fly ash concrete, with 60% replacing the portland cement. This concrete presented values of mechanical strength (33.38 ± 3.99 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (38.58 ± 0.81 GPa) which confirms its use as structural concrete. This concrete showed low heat of hydration, a reduction of 23% in relation to the reference concrete (without fly ash) during its curing process, and its
microstructure presented a lower level of cracking.
July 1, 2020
Bruce Menu, Thomas Jacob-Vaillancourt, Marc Jolin, and Benoit Bissonnette
The experimental program reported in this paper sought to evaluate the efficiency of a range of curing methods in view of minimizing the evaporation rate at the surface of freshly placed shotcrete and preventing the detrimental consequences of early-age shrinkage. CSA A23.1-14 states that severe drying conditions should be considered to exist when the surface moisture evaporation rate exceeds 0.50 kg/m2/h (0.1 lb/ft2/h). In fact, the environmental conditions that lead to such evaporation rates are regularly
experienced on construction sites, requiring that adequate protection of the concrete surface be carried out in a timely manner after placement. This research effort is aimed at quantifying the influence of selected curing methods upon the early-age moisture loss and the resulting shrinkage. The results show that early-age volume change of freshly sprayed shotcrete can be significantly reduced by adequate surface protection. Among the investigated methods, moist curing is found to be the most effective.
Mahdi Valipour and Kamal H. Khayat
Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) can be vulnerable to variations in materials properties and environmental conditions. In this paper, the sensitivity of UHPC to changes in mixing, casting, curing, and testing temperatures ranging between 10 and 30 ± 2°C (50 and 86 ± 3.5°F) was investigated. The investigated rheological properties, mechanical properties, and shrinkage of UHPC are shown to be significantly affected by temperature changes. UHPC made with either binary or ternary binder containing fly ash (FA) or slag cement exhibited greater robustness than mixtures prepared with 25% silica fume. UHPC made with 60% FA necessitated the lowest high-range water-reducing admixture demand. With temperature increase, the yield stress of UHPC mixtures increased by up to 55%, and plastic viscosity decreased by up to 45%. This resulted in accelerating initial and final setting times by up to 4.5 and 5 hours, respectively. The increase of temperature from 10 to 30 ± 2°C (50 ± to 86 ± 3.5°F) led to a 10 to 75% increase in compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity and 15 to 60% increase in autogenous shrinkage.
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