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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 446 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP-361_02

Date: 

March 1, 2024

Author(s):

Michelle A. Helsel, Milena Rangelov, Robert Spragg, Michael Praul

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

361

Abstract:

To support a rapid integration of sustainability principles into paving concrete practice, this study provides a closer look into readily implementable cement and concrete decarbonization strategies. To do so, this study relies on combined stakeholder involvement, quantitative analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the state-of-the-practice in the US paving concrete industry to understand merits of each solution. The results indicate that concrete mix design optimization is a promising, yet not widely applied solution that can reduce costs, enhance durability, and provide average carbon emissions savings of 14 percent. Use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) is another solution with multiple benefits, however, the use of SCM is already widely implemented across the USA. Industry-wide improvement in cement carbon footprint due to energy efficiency can provide additional savings of up to 10 percent. Quantifying the environmental footprint of concrete is critical to inform decision-making and enable more sustainable outcomes.

DOI:

10.14359/51740604


Document: 

SP-361_03

Date: 

March 1, 2024

Author(s):

Franco Zunino and Karen L. Scrivener

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

361

Abstract:

Concrete is the substance most consumed by humanity after water. Blended cements in which part of the energy intensive clinker is replaced by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are the by far the most realistic means to obtain large scale CO2 reductions in the short-to-midterm, attending the urgency of the climate emergency. LC3, blended cement produced by the combination of limestone, calcined clays and Portland cement provides a solution that achieves equivalent mechanical performance to OPC, better durability against chloride penetration and ASR and a reduction of CO2 emissions by about 40%. Due to the similarities of LC3 with OPC, it is a material that can be adopted today using the same construction equipment and workforce worldwide.

DOI:

10.14359/51740605


Document: 

SP361

Date: 

March 1, 2024

Author(s):

ACI Committees ACI Committees 130 and E702

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

361

Abstract:

Concrete has played a pivotal role in shaping the modern world’s infrastructure and the built environment. Its unparalleled versatility, durability, and structural integrity have made it indispensable in the construction industry. From skyscrapers to long-span bridges, water reservoirs, dams, and highways, the ubiquitous presence of concrete in modern society underscores its significance in global development. As we stand at the crossroads of environmental awareness and the imperative to advance our societies, the sustainability of concrete production and utilization is becoming a new engineering paradigm. The immense demand for concrete, driven by urbanization and infrastructure development, has prompted a critical examination of its environmental impact. One of the most pressing concerns is the substantial carbon footprint associated with traditional concrete production. The production of cement, a key ingredient in concrete, is a notably energy-intensive process that releases a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. As concrete remains unparalleled in its ability to provide structural functionality, disaster resilience, and containment of hazardous materials, the demand for concrete production is increasing, while at the same time, the industry is facing the urgency to mitigate its ecological consequences. This special publication investigates the multi-faceted realm of concrete sustainability, exploring the interplay between its engineering properties, environmental implications, and novel solutions, striving to provide an innovative and holistic perspective. In recent years, the concrete industry has witnessed a surge of innovation and research aimed at revolutionizing its sustainability. An array of cutting-edge technologies and methodologies has emerged, each offering promise in mitigating the environmental footprint of concrete. Notably, the integration of supplementary cementitious materials, such as calcined clays and other industrial byproducts, has gained traction to reduce cement content while enhancing concrete performance. Mix design optimization, coupled with advanced admixtures, further elevates the potential for creating durable, strong, and eco-friendly concrete mixtures. Concrete practitioners will gain an advanced understanding of a wide variety of strategies that are readily implementable and oftentimes associated with economic savings and durability enhancement from reading these manuscripts. The incorporation of recycled materials, such as crushed concrete and reclaimed aggregates, not only reduces waste but also lessens the demand for virgin resources. Furthermore, the adoption of efficient production techniques, along with the exploration of carbon capture and utilization technologies, presents an optimistic path forward for the industry. This special publication aspires to contribute to the ongoing discourse on concrete sustainability, offering insights, perspectives, and actionable pathways toward a more environmentally conscious future.

DOI:

10.14359/51740669


Document: 

SP-360_42

Date: 

March 1, 2024

Author(s):

Luciano Ombres, Pietro Mazzuca, Alfredo Micieli and Francesco Campolongo

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

360

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations on the residual tensile and bond response of polypara-phenylene-benzo-bisthiazole (PBO) fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites after the exposure to elevated temperatures ranging between 20 °C [68 ºF] and 300 °C [572 ºF]. Experimental results obtained from direct tensile (DT) and single-lap direct shear (DS) tests carried out respectively on PBO FRCM specimens and PBO FRCM-concrete elements were reported and discussed. Overall, specimens exposed to temperatures up to 200 °C [392 ºF] did not present significant reductions of both bond and tensile properties. This result can be attributed to the thermal shrinkage underwent by the inorganic matrix, which may enhance the bond between the fibers and the matrix. On the other hand, when the specimens were heated at 300 °C [572 ºF], marked reductions were observed, primarily stemming from the degradation of both mechanical properties of the FRCM constituent materials and the fiber-to-matrix bond. Subsequently, the experimental results were used for the following purposes: (i) to assess whether the Aveston–Cooper–Kelly (ACK) theory is able to describe the tensile behavior of FRCM materials at elevated temperatures; (ii) to define temperature-dependent local bond stress vs. slip law and (iii) to evaluate the ability of degradation models to simulate the variation with temperature of the FRCM tensile and bond properties. The results obtained from the theoretical analyses showed that, for all the tested temperature, the relative differences between predicted and experimental results are very low, confirming the accuracy of the proposed approaches.

DOI:

10.14359/51740654


Document: 

SP359_04

Date: 

November 1, 2023

Author(s):

Jacob D. Henschen, Daniel Blood, Shiho Kawashima, Heather A. Kirkvold

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

359

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing using material deposition methods continues to be a rapidly expanding field. Researchers have now begun to adapt these manufacturing methods to include cementitious materials. The impact on concrete design and construction methods are expected to undergo significant changes as a result of this new technology. However, as with adopting any new technology, knowledge transfer is critical to assure successful implementation. For engineers, this knowledge transfer begins with their coursework and faculty who can encourage students to explore new areas and readily apply what they learn. Since the field of printing concrete is still emerging, many of the applications and impacts of the technology are not adequately characterized. Furthermore, the technology itself has not been fully investigated or included in design literature. Incorporating ambiguity, multi-disciplinary teams, and open-ended problems successfully in undergraduate and graduate courses can be challenging. The goal of this paper is to advise faculty who wish to incorporate additive manufacturing topics related to cementitious materials in their courses.

DOI:

10.14359/51740290


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