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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 515 Abstracts search results
March 1, 2021
Noura Sinno, Matthew Piersanti, and Medhat H. Shehata
This paper presents tests that can be used collectively to provide a qualitative assessment of residual expansion in structures affected by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). The tests are applied to bridge barriers suffering different levels of ASR deterioration. These include testing extracted cores under different lab conditions, monitoring concrete elements under field condition, damage rating index (DRI) on cores, and measuring alkali levels in the affected concrete. Expansion of barriers with low deterioration level was double that of highly deteriorated barriers at 4.5 years. Similar results were reached through testing cores under laboratory conditions at 38°C (100°F) and 100% relative humidity, although the DRI showed the same increase in damage in both cores after testing. Testing cores under laboratory conditions until expansion ceases helps in predicting the minimum residual expansion. Soaking cores in alkaline solutions of different concentrations and finding the level required to trigger expansion helps in assessing the risk of future expansion.
Mohamed M. Sadek and Assem A. A. Hassan
This study evaluated the abrasion resistance for a number of lightweight self-consolidating concrete (LWSCC) incorporating coarse and fine lightweight expanded slate aggregates (LC or LF, respectively). The study also investigated the abrasion resistance before and after exposure to freezing-and-thawing cycles in the presence of deicing salt. The investigated parameters included different volumes of LC and LF aggregates, three binder contents (500, 550, and 600 kg/m3 [31.2, 34.3, and 37.5 lb/ft3]), and different types of concrete (LWSCC, lightweight vibrated concrete, and normal-weight self-consolidating concrete). Increasing the percentage of expanded slate aggregate decreased the abrasion resistance. Mixtures with LF showed higher strength-per-weight ratio and higher abrasion and salt-scaling resistance compared to mixtures with LC. Samples exposed to abrasion before salt scaling had higher mass losses due to salt scaling with an average of 26.8%
compared to non-abraded ones. Higher mass loss was also observed in mixtures exposed to abrasion after the exposure to salt scaling with an average of 26% and 43.3% in the rotating-cutter and sandblasting abrasion tests, respectively.
Anvit Gadkar and Kolluru V. L. Subramaniam
Self-leveling concrete is developed with low-calcium alkali-activated fly ash (AAF) binder paste. The rheological behavior of AAF pastes with different compositions is evaluated. AAF pastes are proportioned with alkali-silicate activating solutions to ensure specific reactive oxide ratios for comparable geopolymer strength. The yield stress and the viscosity of the AAF binder paste vary with the silica content and the silica modulus (SiO2/Na2O mass ratio) in the alkali-silicate activating solution. The slump and flow behaviors of concrete mixtures made with AAF paste are evaluated. The requirements of the AAF binder characteristics, paste content, and aggregate packing for achieving self-leveling flow characteristics under gravity-induced flow are assessed. The transition from a frictional to a flow-type behavior in concrete mixtures depends on the AAF binder paste content. Self-leveling is achieved without the use of admixtures with an AAF binder paste of low yield stress and at a paste content of 45%. Improving the aggregate packing using the Fuller-Thompson curve and reducing the yield stress of the AAF
binder paste increase the flow achieved in concrete mixtures. The specifications for cement-based self-consolidating concrete (SCC) are closely applicable for self-leveling AAF-based concrete.
Wei Cui, Qiu-Wei Tang, and Hui-Fang Song
This paper aims to find the effects of viscosity on concrete behavior in pipelines. Concrete was prepared according to ACI 304.2R-96. Experiments were conducted for measuring its workability by means of slump test. Fluidity and rheology measurements of fresh mortar were investigated. The concrete behavior in pipes was directly investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, which is based on the Eulerian approach and the dense discrete phase model (DDPM). Concrete behavior including flow profiles, aggregate distributions, and migration was analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the flow characteristic varies from shear flow to plug flow with increased viscosity, and the aggregate distribution along the central axis is more homogeneous. Aggregate radial migration is more pronounced with increased shearing time, decreased viscosity, and enlarged size of aggregates. It was also found that concrete between 12 and 22 Pa·s (1.74 × 10–3 and 3.19 × 10–3 psi·s) is more suitable for pumping.
Mengesha A. Beyene and Richard C. Meininger
The mechanism of alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR) is still controversial. ACR distress in concrete has been described as an increase in volume caused by the crystallization of brucite following dedolomitization. In this study, the cause of concrete distress in reported ACR-damaged concrete pavements was investigated, and it was determined that alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was the cause of the damage. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses identified ASR gel extending from reactive aggregates into the paste, X-ray elemental mapping confirmed the composition of the gel, and EDS determined the amount of each element in the ASR gel spectra. Silica in the form of cryptocrystalline-microcrystalline quartz was found in the matrix of reactive aggregates and was the source of reactive silica. The test results confirmed that ASR caused the damage to the primary concrete pavements and present the first case ever reported in the United States in which ASR is the main cause of concrete damage in concrete made from carbonate aggregate exhibiting a classic texture and composition cited for ACR.
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