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Showing 1-10 of 63 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP79-62

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Kiyolshi Kohno, Katsunori Horii, and Hiroo Fukushima

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

The use of industrial by-products such as fly ash, blast-furnace slag and ferro-silicon condensed silica fume for making concrete block stripped immediately after molding was investigated in order to save natural resources. Zero-slump concretes containing varying by-products were used. Each concrete block having the size of, 150 x150 x540mm,was manufactured by using an instant-stripping mold. After stripping, the blocks were cured in a steam chamber and a water tank of standard manner. Concrete qualitiessuch as compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, solidity ratio and surface texture were investigated at given ages. The results of these investigations reveal that there is no great difference between the quality of concretes containing small amounts of by-products and that of the plain concrete. The use of blast-furnace slag is more effective for 28- day strength development. The color of concrete using fly ash or slag is white, and the condensed silica fume substitution is advantageous for steam curing. These by-products may have a useful role in concrete block industry.

10.14359/6745


Document: 

SP79-61

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Hideo Kasami, Tadashi Ikeda, Shinichi Numata, and Hisamitsu Harada

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

Laboratory and field studies were conducted on blast-furnace slag aggregates to establish nationwide material standards and recommended practices. Absorption of air-cooled blast-furnace slag kept in water was 2 to 9 times that of natural gravel, while that under pressure of 2.0 MPa was 1.2 to 4 times that kept in water. Absorption characteristics of air-cooled blast-furnace slag under pressure varied depending on its porosity and pore size distribution. Field studies were conducted on the pumpability of blast-furnace slag aggregate concretes. Air-entrained concretes containing air-cooled and granulated blast-furnace slags, and those containing crushed stone and natural sand were pumped and tested for pumping pressure and properties before and after pump-ing. Concrete with air-cooled blast-furnace slag indicated higher pumping pressure than that with crushed stone due to pressure absorption, while no significant change was found for granulated blast-furnace slag concrete. It is concluded that blast-furnace slag aggregate concrete is pumpable without significant slump-loss when such aggregate does not have excessive absorption, and is properly presoaked in water before the mixing of concrete.

10.14359/6744


Document: 

SP79-60

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Mitsunori Kawamura, Kazuyu.ki Torii, Shigemasa Hasaba, Nobuhiro Nicho, and Kiyotoshi Oda

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

Little basic oxygen slag is used as a portland cement concrete aggregate because of its unsoundness in concrete. However, soundness of basic oxygen furnace slag in concrete appears to largely depend upon the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the slag. Several experiments concerning workability, compressive strength and dimensional stability of concrete made with basic oxygen furnace slag were conducted for investigating the possibility of the use of basic oxygen furnace slag as a concrete aggregate. The concrete made with weathered slag showed a much higher slump for a given mix proportion than natural aggregate concrete and the concrete prepared using unweathered slag. The longer the periods during which the slag used wasplaced outdoors, the lower the compressive strength of the slag concrete. The changes in the mineralogical and chemical compositions and the surface texture of basic oxygen furnace slag particles were determined by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, SEM and EDAX. The results of these experiments show that reduction in compressive strength and high slumps in the concrete made with the weathered slag aggregates arise from slow hydration of C2S and C2F on and/or near the surface of basic oxygen furnace slag during weathering. It may be concluded that basic oxygen furnace slag can be used as a concrete aggregate if the grading of fine slag aggregates coarsened by its slow hydration is improved by adding river sand so as to obtain a workable concrete.

10.14359/6743


Document: 

SP79-59

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

J. Metso, S. Makinen, and E. Kajaus

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

The investigation was carried out by using different amounts of blast furnace slag in blended cements. The slag content of the binder varied from 0 % to 100 % of the weight of the cement. The cement-aggregate ratio in the experiments was 1:15 and the water-cement + slag ratio was 5.9. The compressive strength of the mining-fill-concrete was determined at the age of 28, 91 and 182 days. The specimens were cured at both +8 OC and a t +20 oC. The optimum cement content in the binder when granulated slag was used, was 10 % at both temperatures. Using pelletized slag, the optimum cement content in binding agent was, at +8 oC, 30 %, and at +20 oC, 10 % of the weight of blended cement. At lower temperatures the finer slag gave higher compressive strength results while at the temperature of 20 ‘C no increase in compressive strength was observed.

10.14359/6742


Document: 

SP79-58

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

H. Roper, F. Kam, and G.J. Auld

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

Methods of production, placement and strength requirements of mine fill are briefly described. The chemical composition and details of the mineralogical nature of a particular quenched copper reverberatory furnace slag, successfully used in fill operations at Mount Isa Mine, Queensland, Australia are discussed. Experimental work on slag reactivity in the presence of Ca(OH)2 is described, and includes studies on the heat of hydration, non-evaporable water and x-ray intensity variations. The reaction product, which is also observed in the presence of hydrating portland cement appears to be a 7.34 & hydrate. Information on hydration characteristics may eventually allow advantageous modifications to be made to the present compositions of the fill material.

10.14359/6741


Document: 

SP79-57

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Shigeyoshi Nagataki, Makoto Takada, and Etsuro Sakai

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

The potential hydraulicity of granulated blast-furnace slag sand in concrete governs the characteristics of concrete. Physical properties of concrete, and particularly, the structure of the hydrated layer formed at the surface of the granulated blast-furnace slag sand, the hydration activity of the granulated blast-furnace slag sand and the decline in the mechanical properties after drying of concrete were followed. The physical properties of concrete are influenced by the hydration reaction layers formed around granulated blast-furnace slag sand particles. The strength reduction due to drying may be due to the embrittlement of the hydration reaction layers or the formation of microcracks.

10.14359/6740


Document: 

SP79-56

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

J. Metso and E. Kajaus

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

The activation of merwinite-gehlenite type blast furnace slag was studied using ordinary Portland cement clinker, Ca(OH) CaS04 . 2 H20, NaOH, Na2Si03, Na2C03, fly ash, phosphogypsum, f I admixture, etc. The blast furnace slag used in this investigation was either granulated slag or pelletized slag. The spe ific sur- 5 face area of the granulated slag was 270 m2/kg or 400 m /kg and was 500 m2/kg when used with F-admixture. Sodium hydroxides, phospho-gypsum + NaOH, Na2C03 + NaOH and fly ash + NaOH were good activa-tors. Pelletized slag was activated well with strong bases. The pelletized slag needed higher concentration of NaOH than granulated slag. Fresh granulated and pelletized slag with a specific surface of about 300 m2/kg or higher could be self-activated and gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa at 28 days. The aged,ground granulated and pelletized blast furnace slag, however, did not harden without an activator. With both slags, at a slag content of 300 kgjm3, high compressive strength was obtained with F-admixture. The compressive strength at early ages was comparable to that of normal concrete, when the binding agent was ordinary Portland cement.

10.14359/6739


Document: 

SP79-55

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Kazunobu Hirai

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of blastfurnace slag on the frost resistance and poros-ity of neo-ferrite cement mortar. Neo-ferrite cement is a new type of ferrite cement produced from blastfurnace slag and con-verter slag that is a by-product of the steel industry. In this new cement, the amount of limestone as a raw material in cement production is reduced by approximately 2/3 in comparison with the ordinary portland cement. For the purpose of improving the durability of the cement, freezing and thawing tests were perpormed on prismatic mortars made from neo-ferrite cement incorporating three different amountsofslag by weight. The mortar specimen made from neo-ferritecementincorporating blastfurnaceslag approximately twenty percent (by weight) showed considerably improved resistance to frost action.

10.14359/6738


Document: 

SP79-54

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Taketo Uomoto and Kazusuke Kobayashi

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

If a cement consisting mostly of blast-furnace slag and by-product gypsum becomes practical, it will not only contribute to energy saving, but will also result in the effective use of resources and industrial wastes. This report mainly investigates by experimentation the strength characteristics, surface deteriora-tion of the cement concrete and corrosion of reinforcing steel when using the above cement. The major findings of this research are: 1) The relation between compressive strength and water-cement ratio differs from that of ordinary portland cement and varies greatly depending on the degree of mixing. A general strength formula for this type of cement concrete is proposed. 2) The surface deterioration of the cement concrete, caused by carbon dioxide in the air, cannot be prevented by changing the proportion of cementing materials without changing other proper-ties. The most practical method is to apply coatings to the sur-face of concrete. 3) A fairly large amount of corrosion is observed on the surfaces of reinforcing steel in concrete at the age of four weeks. It is considered that the cause is the reaction productpf slag and gypsum, and inhibitor is effective in preventing corrosion.

10.14359/6737


Document: 

SP79-53

Date: 

May 1, 1983

Author(s):

Jiro Murata, Michio Kawasaki, Takeshi Sakai, and Tadashi Kawai

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

79

Abstract:

The generally high resistance to freezing and thawing of concrete using ground blast-furnace slag as sand is noted, and from the standpoint of effective utilization of waste materials, development of positive uses for blast-furnace slag sand is studied.

10.14359/6736


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