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Showing 1-5 of 12 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP344

Date: 

October 21, 2020

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

344

Abstract:

The design and analysis of structural concrete elements is a topic of practical interest. While sometimes the effect of torsion is only addressed based on simple examples, practicing engineers are faced with the need to include the effects of torsion in their designs of a variety of structures and load arrangements. This Special Publication (SP) contains papers about the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete elements for torsion. The focus of the SP is on practical design examples according to different concrete bridge and building codes. In addition to the design examples, papers dealing with the current state of the art on torsion in structural concrete, as well as recent advances in the analysis and design of concrete elements failing in torsion, are added. The objectives of this SP are to provide practicing engineers with the tools necessary to better understand and design concrete elements for torsion. The need for this SP arose after the development of the State-of-the-Art Report on Torsion of Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445 “Shear and Torsion” and Subcommittee 445-E “Torsion”. Usually, the attention that is paid to torsion in engineering education is limited to simplified textbook examples. The examples in this SP show applications in bridges and buildings, where the torsion design is combined with the design for flexure and shear. Additionally, the examples in this SP give insight on the different outcomes when using different bridge and building codes. Finally, the papers that include theoretical considerations give practicing engineers a deeper understanding and background on torsion in structural concrete. The views from an international group of authors are included in this SP, subsequently representing a variety of building and bridge codes the engineer may encounter in practice. In particular, authors from the United States, Canada, Ecuador, the Netherlands, Italy, Greece, and the Czech Republic contributed to the papers in this SP. Views from academia and the industry are included. To exchange experience in the design of torsion-critical structures as well as new research insights on torsion, Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445 and Subcommittee 445-E organized two sessions titled “Examples for the Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Members under Torsion” at the ACI Fall Convention 2020. This SP contains several technical papers from experts who presented their work at these sessions, in addition to papers submitted for publication only. In summary, this SP addresses numerous practical examples of structural elements under torsion in bridges and buildings, as well as insights from recent research applied to practical cases of elements under torsion. The co-editors of this SP are grateful for the contributions of the authors and sincerely value the time and effort they invested in preparing the papers in this volume, as well as the contributions of the reviewers of the manuscripts.

DOI:

10.14359/51729287


Document: 

SP-344_02

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Giorgio T. Proestos, Evan C. Bentz, Michael P. Collins

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

344

Abstract:

The traditional approach in the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete building structures has been to design each of the two orthogonal directions independently. In calculating the distribution of moments in a structure, this two-dimensional approach neglects the effects of the intersecting members. That is, in the case of compatibility torsions, the torsional stiffness is neglected. This paper provides a summary of the progression of the ACI code and commentary pertaining to the zero torsional stiffness assumption and its origins. The paper then introduces a recently developed nonlinear finite element analysis tool, VAST II, capable of predicting the response of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in three-dimensions. The tool, based on the Modified Compression Field Theory, is capable of modelling entire structures or large portions of structures in order to assess their performance in a manner that accounts for three-dimensional effects, such as compatibility torsions. VAST II is then used to model a case study transit center. The transit center is a post-tensioned concrete structure that was designed using the traditional approach of neglecting the effects of compatibility torsions. The results indicate that the traditional approach recommended by the ACI code and commentary, to neglect compatibility torsions, is appropriate and gives robust designs. The paper concludes by providing recommendations for future studies that could be conducted using three-dimensional nonlinear tools such as VAST II. Keywords:

DOI:

10.14359/51728289


Document: 

SP-344_01

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Camilo Granda Valencia and Eva Lantsoght

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

344

Abstract:

Large torsional moments, which need to be considered in a design, can result among others, in structures with an asymmetric layout or loading. To find the required longitudinal and transverse reinforcement to resist these torsional moments, the link between the three-dimensional action of the torsional moment and sectional analysis methods is necessary. This paper reviews the existing methods and code provisions for torsion. First, an overview of the principles of torsion from the mechanics perspective is given. Then, a survey of the available mechanical models for torsion is presented. Finally, the code provisions for torsion of ACI 318-19, CSA-A23.3-04, AASHTO-LRFD- 17, EN 1992-1-1:2004, and the fib Model Code 2010 are summarized. Additionally, current research topics on torsion in structural concrete are summarized. It is expected that with this paper, engineers will have a useful overview and background knowledge for the design and assessment of torsion-critical elements.

DOI:

10.14359/51728288


Document: 

SP-344_11

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Thomas T. C. Hsu and Yagiz Oz

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

344

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a cantilever canopy and its supporting beam for a sport stadium. The reinforced concrete beam is analyzed and designed under the effects of shear load, bending moment, and torsion. The design was carried out following the American Concrete Institute’s most recent standard (ACI 318-19). When there is torsion on reinforced concrete sections, the design steps become more complicated. The formula to design and the minimum requirements for both the longitudinal and transverse bars are changed since the torsion is included. The design of flexural longitudinal bars is not affected from torsion however, there are needed more longitudinal bars against torsion which affect the spacing and the detailing of longitudinal bars. For transverse bars, when the torsion is considered, the stirrups are designed as the sum of transverse and shear requirement. The main focus of the paper is to show the design steps and detailing of structural concrete elements under the effect of torsional moment.

DOI:

10.14359/51728298


Document: 

SP-344_10

Date: 

October 1, 2020

Author(s):

Gary G. Greene, Jr. and David L. Hartmann

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

344

Abstract:

The Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445 published a document titled Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete that contained an in-depth review of historical theory development, design models, and simplified design procedures for the effect of torsion in concrete structures. That document contained three design examples that were relatively simple. An important goal of this ACI Special Publication is to provide more realistic design examples that are usable by design professionals. This paper satisfies that goal by showing a detailed solution to a realistic example that has been encountered on several occasions by one of the authors. Another goal of the ACI Special Publication is to show applications where torsion is combined with flexure and shear. In this example, the torsional effects are combined with biaxial flexure and biaxial shear forces. This example includes a check of the new provisions in ACI 318-19 for bi-axial shear effects.

This paper shows a detailed solution for the design of a reinforced concrete grade beam subjected to torsional effects combined with biaxial shear and biaxial flexure. The grade beam is a portion of a structural screen wall system. A 25 psf (1.20 kPa) strength level wind pressure acts on a 20 ft (6.10 m) tall CMU wall supported by a continuous grade beam. The 21 in (533 mm) wide by 18 in (457 mm) deep grade beam is isolated from an expansive soil and is supported by drilled shafts 21 ft (6.40 m) on center. The wind load and gravity loads induce torsion, biaxial bending moments, and biaxial shear forces in the grade beam. This example shows how to calculate the internal forces in the grade beam at the critical section and design the required longitudinal and shear reinforcement according to the ACI 318-19 code.

The design of the grade beam includes closed stirrups of #4 (Ø 12) bars spaced at 5.5 in (140 mm), five #8 (Ø 25) bars used near the top and bottom faces and one #6 (Ø 16) bar used at mid-height near the side faces.

DOI:

10.14359/51728297


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