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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-5 of 11 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP255

Date: 

October 1, 2008

Author(s):

Editor: V.K.R. Kodur / Joint ACI-TMS Committee 216

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

255

Abstract:

The aim of this SP is to present some of the latest research in the area of fire performance of concrete. The ten papers in this SP present state-of-the-art review and results from both experimental and numerical studies on the various aspects ranging from material properties at elevated temperatures to optimum solutions for overcoming spalling in HSC concrete members exposed to fire. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the lifetime of a structure and, therefore,the provision of appropriate fire safety measures for structural members is a major safety requirement in building design. The basis for this requirement can be attributed to the fact that, when other measures for containing the fire fail, structural integrity is the last line of defense. Generally, concrete structural members exhibit good performance under fire situations. In most cases, structural members used to be made of conventional concretes, often referred to as normal-strength concrete (NSC). However, in the last two decades, there have been significant advances in concrete material technology. These advances have lead to new concrete types, often referred to as high-strength or high-performance concrete. The construction industry has shown great interest in the use of high-strength concrete (HSC) due to improvements in structural performance, such as high strength and durability, that it can provide, compared to conventional NSC. HSC is typically characterized by high strength, good workability, and durability. Studies show, however, that the performance of HSC is different from that of NSC, and may not exhibit the same level of performance in fire. Furthermore, the spalling of concrete under fire conditions is one of the major concerns in HSC. Fire-induced spalling in concrete has been observed under laboratory and real fire conditions in HSC specimens. Spalling is theorized to be caused by the buildup of pore pressure during heating. HSC is believed to be more susceptible to this pressure buildup because of its low permeability compared to NSC. Data from various studies show that predicting the fire performance of HSC, in general, and spalling, in particular, is very complex because it is affected by a number of factors. In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, several issues relating to building performance under extreme conditions (structural, material, fire) have come to the forefront. Since intense fires played a major role in the collapse of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and other buildings, the issue of material performance under extreme fire conditions has attracted significant attention from the research and engineering community. Consequently, a number of new research programs in structural fire safety area are leading to new design provisions and solutions for enhancing the fire resistance performance of steel structures.

DOI:

10.14359/20093


Document: 

SP255-07

Date: 

October 1, 2008

Author(s):

K.J.N. MacLean, L.A. Bisby, and C.C. MacDougall

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

255

Abstract:

Unbonded post-tensioned (PT) concrete slabs have been widely used in Canada and the United States since the 1960s, as they allow increased span-to-depth ratios and excellent control of deflections compared to non-prestressed reinforced concrete flexural members. The satisfactory fire performance of unbonded, PT concrete slabs in North America was established by a series of standard fire tests performed in the United States during the 1960s. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of elevated temperatures on cold-drawn prestressing steel, both in terms of post-fire residual mechanical properties and high-temperature stress relaxation, which can lead to significant prestress loss both during and after a fire. To aid in the post-fire evaluation of PT concrete floors, a series of high-temperature residual tension tests on prestressing steel is presented, along with a second series of tests that illustrate the irrecoverable and significant loss of prestress force that may result from steel relaxation (creep) during a fire. A preliminary model is presented that can be used to predict the change in prestress force and allow for the computation of flexural capacity of a PT slab after a fire.

DOI:

10.14359/20223


Document: 

SP255-09

Date: 

October 1, 2008

Author(s):

F. Ali and A. Nadjai

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

255

Abstract:

One of the new techniques to reduce explosive spalling in concrete subjected to fire is to add a cocktail of polypropylene fibers and steel fibers into the concrete mixture. This method is still in the early stages of development and requires more research to investigate the efficiency of introducing such a combination of fibers in reducing explosive spalling in fire. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an experimental study conducted to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete columns containing steel and polypropylene fibers under different loadings and subjected to severe fire conditions. Two loading levels were investigated representing 0.6 and 0.76 of the ultimate strength limits of ACI 318. Columns containing polypropylene (1 kg/m3) and steel fibers (80kg/m3) showed a higher fire resistance by an average factor of 1.76 compared to columns containing PP fibers (1 kg/m3) only. The paper also assesses the effect of adding steel and polypropylene fibers on the severity of concrete explosion under fire. Measurements of axial displacements and concrete temperatures are presented in this paper. The paper compares the obtained experimental values of the axial displacements with theoretical values calculated using a previously developed simple approach.

DOI:

10.14359/20225


Document: 

SP255-02

Date: 

October 1, 2008

Author(s):

M. Guerrieri, J. Sanjayan, and F. Collins

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

255

Abstract:

A hydrocarbon fire test was conducted on nine concrete slabs incorporating three different types of binders: 100% ordinary portland cement (OPC), 50% OPC, and 50% ground-granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBFS), and alkali-activated slag (AAS). The specimens (780 mm [30.71 in.] x 360 mm [14.17 in.]) were made with three different thicknesses (100 mm [3.94 in.], 200 mm [7.87 in.] and 400 mm [15.75 in.]). Specimens were tested at an age of six months when the strengths were about 75 Mpa (10,877 psi). The specimens were exposed to the hydrocarbon fire on one side. Explosive spalling only occurred in the 400 mm (15.75 in.) AAS concrete specimen that had a lower moisture content and higher permeability than the OPC and OPC/slag concretes. This suggests that the well-renowned moisture clog theory is unlikely to be a predominant mechanism of spalling in AAS concrete. It is speculated that high thermal gradients caused explosive spalling in the AAS concrete specimen.

DOI:

10.14359/20218


Document: 

SP255-05

Date: 

October 1, 2008

Author(s):

V.K.R. Kodur and N.K. Raut

Publication:

Symposium Papers

Volume:

255

Abstract:

This paper presents the state-of-the-art review and research needs assessment of the fire performance of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. The literature review revealed that almost all of the fire tests have been undertaken on RC columns under standard fire scenarios and were narrow in scope due to limitations in test equipment and loading capacities. There have been limited analytical studies on modeling the fire behavior of RC columns and were mainly based on elemental approach and either neglected spalling or used a very simple and crude model for representing spalling. Most of the current provisions, in codes and standards, for evaluating fire resistance are based on prescriptive approaches and do not include significant parameters that affect fire resistance. Based on this comprehensive review, research needs for developing rational fire design methods for RC columns through a performance-based approach, is highlighted.

DOI:

10.14359/20221


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