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Title: Exploring Strength of Straight and Bent GFRP Bars: Refinements to CSA S807:19 Annex E

Author(s): Ahmed Khalil, Rami A. Hawileh, and Mousa Attom

Publication: Symposium Paper

Volume: 360


Appears on pages(s): 242-253

Keywords: Durability, CSA, ACI, ASTM, Bent, FRP, Strength.

DOI: 10.14359/51740628

Date: 3/1/2024

This study explores technological advancements enabling the utilization of GFRP bars in concrete structures, particularly in coastal areas. However, GFRP bars often encounter reduced bend strength at specific bend locations, which may pose a challenge in their practical application. Various properties such as the strength of bent GFRP bars are crucial for quality assurance, yet existing testing methods stated in ASTM D7914M-21 and ACI 440.3R-15 have limitations when applied to different GFRP bent shapes. Furthermore, those methods require special precautions to ensure symmetry and avoid eccentricities in specimens. To address these challenges, CSA S807:19 introduced a simpler standardized testing procedure that involves embedding a single L-shaped GFRP stirrup in a concrete block. However, the specified large block size in CSA S807:19 Annex E may pose difficulties for both laboratory and on-site quality control tests. Therefore, CSA S807:19 Annex E (Clause 7.1.2b) permits the use of a customized block size, as long as it meets the bend strength of the FRP bars without causing concrete splitting. To date, very few prior research has explored the use of custom block sizes. Therefore, this study aims to thoroughly investigate the strength of bent FRP bars with custom block sizes and without block confinement. Such an investigation serves to highlight the user-friendliness and efficiency of the CSA S807:19 Annex E method. The study recommends two block sizes: 200x400x300 mm (7.87x15.75x11.81 in) for bars <16 mm (0.63 in) diameter and 200x200x300 mm (7.87x7.87x11.81 in) for bars <12 mm (0.39 in). Additionally, the study cautions against using confinement reinforcement, especially with smaller blocks, as it could interfere with the embedded bent FRP bar. Furthermore, the study suggests incorporating additional tail length to mitigate the debonding effects resulting from fixing the strain gauges to the bent portion of the embedded FRP bar. By exploring these modifications, the study seeks to enhance the effectiveness of the testing procedure and expand its practical application for both laboratory and on-site quality assurance. The findings hold implications for the reliable testing of GFRP bars' strength, advancing their use as reinforcement in concrete structures.