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Title: Shoreline Resilience through Advanced Manufacturing

Author(s): Amin K. Akhnoukh, Mathew Campbell

Publication: Materials Journal



Appears on pages(s):

Keywords: advanced manufacturing; concrete; reactive diffusion morphology; resiliency; shoreline protection; sustainable

DOI: 10.14359/51740264

Date: 11/14/2023

The U.S. National Oceanographic Services estimates 154,080 km (95,741 miles) of shorelines in the United States, where 163 miles/year are hardened by bulkheads and riprap. These shoreline protection techniques are costly and require frequent maintenance. Different agencies are examining “nature-based” solutions that combine vegetation with traditional concrete. Digital construction, advanced manufacturing, and innovative cementitious composites have additionally been proposed as potential means to lower material usage, cost, and environmental impact. This paper presents a novel advanced manufacturing technique using a reactive-diffusion morphological process, called “Dry FormingTM”, to 3-D print concrete structures of various shapes, sizes, and complexity with standard concrete mixes. This technology has reduced 60% of the material use; enhances local habitats, and increases the resiliency of the shoreline to sea level rise. The widespread of this technology would increase the resiliency in coastal communities, protect aquatic life, and protect waterfront public and private real estate investments.