Energy Selection and Consumption of Cold Region Concrete Production
Appears on pages(s):
cold weather concreting; concrete production; energy consumption; heating; life cycle assessment; ready-mixed concrete
The quality of hardened concrete is severely degraded if the concrete is frozen at its setting or hardening stage. To prevent the degradation of materials, heating of the materials, equipment and facilities is widely utilized in ready-mixed concrete plants in cold regions of Japan. The heating is widely mentioned and conditionally recommended in specifications and recommendations. While these documents refer to material types to be heated and maximum temperature that will affect the quality of concrete, they do not refer to the energy sources or heating method for equipment and facilities. These factors, however, do have influences on the environmental performances at production stage of concrete. The difference in energy sources, types of heating and operation design of heating make significant difference in the emission of carbon dioxide and other global warming substances. Considering these importance, this paper surveys the types of energy sources and its system for concrete production at ready-mixed concrete plants in cold regions of Japan. The comparison of plants by the difference in seasonal temperature and the location is analyzed through monthly use of energy and on-site observation in various plants.