Microspheres-Based Admixture for Free-Thaw Durability of Concrete
Frank Shaode Ong, Charles K. Nmai, James Curtis Smith, and John Luciano
Appears on pages(s):
admixture; air entrainment; durability; freeze-thaw; high carbon fly ash; loss-on-ignition; microspheres; recovery test; sustainability
The focus of this paper is a new liquid microspheres-based admixture that has been developed to provide freezing and thawing protection of cementitious-based materials under cyclic, saturated conditions, while addressing and eliminating issues typically associated with the use of surfactant-based admixtures for air entrainment. Consequently, this microspheres-based admixture provides unique opportunities and flexibility in reproportioning or optimizing current air-entrained concrete mixtures with respect to using increased levels of supplementary cementitious materials. It is also shown in the paper that the microspheres-based admixture will facilitate the use of materials that typically hinder air entrainment. A microspheres recovery test method that has been developed to measure the microspheres content of fresh content for quality assurance purposes is also presented and discussed.