Technical Questions

ACI Committees, Membership, and Staff have answered common questions on a variety of concrete related topics.

Protecting concrete from cycles of freezing and thawing

Q. How is concrete protected from exposed cycles of freezing and thawing?


A. Selecting aggregate that is resistant to cycles of freezing and thawing, entraining air so that a proper air-void system is obtained, and achieving a certain maturity (about 24 MPa (3500 psi) compressive strength) enable concrete to resist damage from cycles of freezing and thawing, even when it is critically saturated.


References: SP-1(02); ACI 306R-16; E-1(16); ACI 221R-96; E4-12; ACI 212.3R-16

Topics in Concrete: Admixture; Aggregate; Cold Weather; Durability

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