This document provides guidelines for identifying and controlling visible effects on the surface of concrete as it relates to consolidation on precast or cast-in-place-formed concrete surfaces. A perfectly homogenous and blemish-free concrete element is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. This document, therefore, does not define an acceptable level of quality, as this should be defined in the contract documents.
This guide explores the direct and indirect cause-and-effect relationships, as well as other factors, concerning concrete surface appearance. Photographs are included in this document to illustrate typical concrete surface finish effects that are a departure from absolute perfection. Negative surface effects in concrete can be minimized by proper planning during the design and specification stages. Significant consolidation factors that minimize undesirable concrete negative surface effects are also discussed.
Keywords: bugholes; consistency; consolidation; construction joints; discoloration; form offset; formwork (construction); layer lines; mixture proportioning; plastic settlement cracking; preplaced-aggregate concrete; quality control; sand streaking; surface air voids; surface defects; vibration; workability.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
CHAPTER 3—FACTORS CAUSING NEGATIVE SURFACE EFFECTS
3.1—General causes of negative surface effects
3.2—Design considerations of structural members
3.5—Properties of fresh concrete
3.8—Special construction conditions
CHAPTER 4—NEGATIVE SURFACE EFFECTS
4.2—Air voids in formed surfaces
4.9—Plastic settlement cracking
CHAPTER 5—MINIMIZING NEGATIVE SURFACE EFFECTS
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