How is the air content of hardened concrete determined?

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How is the air content of hardened concrete determined?

Q. How is the air content of hardened concrete determined?

 

A. Hardened concrete samples from cylinders or cores can be lapped (ground smooth, not polished) and subjected to a microscopic examination to determine the total air content. The spacing factor determined indicates the average distance from a point in the cement paste to an air void, and the specific surface indicates the average size of the voids (ASTM C457).

 

References: SP-1(02); ASTM C457

Topics in Concrete: Testing

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