504R-90: Guide to Joint Sealants for Concrete Structures (Reapproved 1997)

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**WITHDRAWN DOCUMENT - This document has been discontinued by ACI and is available for informational purposes only.


Most joints, and some cracks in concrete structures, require sealing against the adverse effects of environmental and service conditions. This report is a guide to better understanding of the properties of joint sealants and to where and how they are used in present practice. Described and illustrated are: the functioning of joint sealants;required properties, available materials and applicable specifications for field-molded sealants and pre-formed sealants such as waterstops, gaskets or compression seals; determination of joint movements, widths, and depths; outline details of joints and sealants used in general structures, fluid containers, and pavements; methods and equipment for sealant installation including preparatory work; performance of sealants; and methods of repairing defective work or maintenance resealing. Finally, improvements needed to insure better joint sealing in the future are indicated. New developments in field-molded and preformed sealants and their use are described together with means of measuring joint movements. Appendix C provides a list of specifications and their sources.


Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 504

Publication Year: 2017

Pages: 44

ISBN: 9780870313448

Categories: Sealants

Formats: PDF

This document is Withdrawn

Table of Contents

Chapter 1--General



1.3--Why joints are required

1.4--Why sealing is needed

1.5--Joint design as part of over-all structural design

1.6--Types of joints and their function

1.7--Joint Configurations

Chapter 2--How joint sealants function

2.1--Basic function of sealants

2.2--Classification of sealants

2.3--Behavior of sealants in butt joints

2.4--Malfunction of sealants

2.5--Behavior of sealants in lap joints

2.6--Effect of temperature

2.7--Shape factor in field-molded sealants

2.8--Function of bond breakers and backup materials

2.9--Function of fillers in expansion joints

2.10--Function of primers

Chapter 3--Sealant materials


3.2--Required properties of joint sealants

3.3--Available materials

3.4--Field-molded sealants

3.5--Preformed seals

Chapter 4--Joint movement and design


4.2--Determination of joint movements and locations

4.3--Selection of butt joint widths for field-molded sealants

4.4--Selection of butt joint shape for field-molded sealants

4.5--Selection of size of compression seals for butt joints

4.6--Limitations on butt joint widths and movements for various

types of sealants

4.7--Lap joint sealant thickness

4.8--Shape and size of rigid waterstops

4.9--Shape and size of flexible waterstops

4.10--Shape and size of gaskets and miscellaneous seals

4.11--Measurement of joint movements

Chapter 5--Joint details



5.3--Slabs on grade, highway, and airports

5.4--Construction and installation considerations

Chapter 6--Installation of sealants


6.2--Joint construction with sealing in mind

6.3--Preparation of joint surfaces

6.4--Inspection of readiness to seal

6.5--Priming, installation of backup materials and bond breakers

6.6--Installation of field-molded sealants, hot applied

6.7--Installation of field-molded sealants, cold applied

6.8--Installation of compression seals

6.9--Installation of preassembled devices

6.10--Installation of waterstops

6.11--Installation of gaskets

6.12--Installation of fillers

6.13--Neatness and cleanup

6.14--Safety precautions

Chapter 7--Performance, repair, and maintenance of sealants

7.1--Poor performance

7.2--Repairs of concrete defects and replacement of sealants

7.3--Normal maintenance

Chapter 8--Sealing in the future and concluding remarks

8.1--What is now possible

8.2--Advancements still needed

Chapter 9--References

Appendix A--Layman's glossary for joint sealant terms

Appendix B--Key to symbols used in figures

Appendix C--Sources of specifications


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