ACI PRC-408-03: Bond and Development of Straight Reinforcing Bars in Tension (Reapproved 2012)

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The performance of reinforced concrete structures depends on adequate bond strength between concrete and reinforcing steel. This report describes bond and development of straight reinforcing bars under tensile load. Bond behavior and the factors affecting bond are discussed, including concrete cover and bar spacing, bar size, transverse reinforcement, bar geometry, concrete properties, steel stress and yield strength, bar surface condition, bar casting position, development and splice length, distance between spliced bars, and concrete consolidation. Descriptive equations and design provisions for development and splice strength are presented and com­pared using a large database of test results. The contents of the database are summarized, and a protocol for bond tests is presented.

Test data and reliability analyses demonstrate that, for compressive strengths up to at least 16,000 psi (110 MPa), the contribution of concrete strength to bond is best represented by the compressive strength to the 1/4 power, while the contribution of concrete to the added bond strength provided by transverse reinforcement is best represented by compressive strength to a power between 3/4 and 1.0. The lower value is used in proposed design equations. These values are in contrast with the square root of compressive strength, which normally is used in both descriptive and design expressions. Provisions for bond in ACI 318-02 are shown to be unconservative in some instances; specifically, the 0.8 bar size factor for smaller bars should not be used and a f-factor for bond is needed to provide a consistent level of reliability against bond failure. Descriptive equations and design procedures developed by Committee 408 that provide improved levels of reliability, safety, and economy are presented. The ACI Committee 408 design procedures do not require the use of the 1.3 factor for Class B splices that is required by ACI 318.

Keywords: anchorage; bond; concrete; deformed reinforcement; development length; reinforced concrete; reinforcement; relative rib area; splice; stirrup; tie.


Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 408

Publication Year: 2003

Pages: 49

ISBN: 9780870311338

Categories: Bond

Formats: PDF

Table of Contents


Chapter 1—Bond behavior

1.1—Bond forces—background

1.2—Test specimens

1.3—Details of bond response


Chapter 2—Factors affecting bond

2.1—Structural characteristics

2.2—Bar properties

2.3—Concrete properties


Chapter 3—Descriptive equations

3.1—Orangun, Jirsa, and Breen

3.2—Darwin et al.

3.3—Zuo and Darwin

3.4—Esfahani and Rangan

3.5—ACI Committee 408


Chapter 4—Design provisions

4.1—ACI 318

4.2—ACI 408.3

4.3—Recommendations by ACI Committee 408

4.4—CEB-FIP Model Code

4.5—Structural reliability and comparison of design expressions

Chapter 5—Database

5.1—Bar stresses


Chapter 6—Test protocol

6.1—Reported properties of reinforcement

6.2—Concrete properties

6.3—Specimen properties

6.4—Details of test

6.5—Analysis method

6.6—Relative rib area

Chapter 7—References

7.1—Referenced standards and reports

7.2—Cited references

Appendix A—SI equations


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