The performance of reinforced concrete structures depends on adequate bond strength between concrete and reinforcing steel. This report describes bond and development of straight reinforcing bars under tensile load. Bond behavior and the factors affecting bond are discussed, including concrete cover and bar spacing, bar size, transverse reinforcement, bar geometry, concrete properties, steel stress and yield strength, bar surface condition, bar casting position, development and splice length, distance between spliced bars, and concrete consolidation. Descriptive equations and design provisions for development and splice strength are presented and compared using a large database of test results. The contents of the database are summarized, and a protocol for bond tests is presented.
Test data and reliability analyses demonstrate that, for compressive strengths up to at least 16,000 psi (110 MPa), the contribution of concrete strength to bond is best represented by the compressive strength to the 1/4 power, while the contribution of concrete to the added bond strength provided by transverse reinforcement is best represented by compressive strength to a power between 3/4 and 1.0. The lower value is used in proposed design equations. These values are in contrast with the square root of compressive strength, which normally is used in both descriptive and design expressions. Provisions for bond in ACI 318-02 are shown to be unconservative in some instances; specifically, the 0.8 bar size factor for smaller bars should not be used and a f-factor for bond is needed to provide a consistent level of reliability against bond failure. Descriptive equations and design procedures developed by Committee 408 that provide improved levels of reliability, safety, and economy are presented. The ACI Committee 408 design procedures do not require the use of the 1.3 factor for Class B splices that is required by ACI 318.
Keywords: anchorage; bond; concrete; deformed reinforcement; development length; reinforced concrete; reinforcement; relative rib area; splice; stirrup; tie.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1—Bond behavior
1.3—Details of bond response
Chapter 2—Factors affecting bond
Chapter 3—Descriptive equations
3.1—Orangun, Jirsa, and Breen
3.2—Darwin et al.
3.3—Zuo and Darwin
3.4—Esfahani and Rangan
3.5—ACI Committee 408
Chapter 4—Design provisions
4.3—Recommendations by ACI Committee 408
4.4—CEB-FIP Model Code
4.5—Structural reliability and comparison of design expressions
Chapter 6—Test protocol
6.1—Reported properties of reinforcement
6.4—Details of test
6.6—Relative rib area
7.1—Referenced standards and reports
Appendix A—SI equations