ACI CODE-350-20: Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures (ACI 350-20) and Commentary (ACI 350R-20)

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Description

The “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures” (Code) portion of this document covers the structural design, materials selection, and construction of environmental engineering concrete structures. Such structures are used for conveying, storing, or treating water and wastewater, other liquids, and solid waste. The term “solid waste” as used in the Code encompasses the heterogeneous mass of disposed-of materials, as well as more homogeneous agricultural, industrial, and mineral wastes.

The Code also covers the evaluation of existing environmental engineering concrete structures.

Environmental engineering concrete structures are subject to uniquely different loadings and severe exposure conditions that require more restrictive serviceability requirements and may provide longer service lives than non-environmental structures.

Loadings include normal dead and live loads, earth pressure loads, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads, and vibrating equipment loads. Exposures include concentrated chemicals, alternate wetting and drying, high-velocity flowing liquids, and freezing and thawing of saturated concrete. Serviceability requirements include liquid-tightness, gas-tightness, and durability.

Proper design, materials, and construction of environmental engineering concrete structures are required to produce serviceable concrete that is dense, durable, nearly impermeable, and resistant to relevant chemicals, with limited deflections and cracking. This includes minimizing leakage and control over the infiltration of, or contamination to, the environment or groundwater.

The Code presents additional material as well as modified portions of the ACI 318-05, ACI 318-08, and ACI 318-11 building codes that are applicable to environmental engineering concrete structures.

The Commentary discusses some of the considerations of the committee in developing the ACI 350 Code, and its relationship with ACI 318. Emphasis is given to the explanation of provisions that may be unfamiliar to some users of the Code. References to much of the research data referred to in preparing the Code are given for those who wish to study certain requirements in greater detail.

The chapter and section numbering of the Code are followed throughout the Commentary.

Among the subjects covered are: drawings and specifications, inspections, materials, concrete quality, mixing and placing, forming, embedded pipes, joints, reinforcement details, analysis and design, strength and serviceability, flexural and axial loads, shear and torsion, development of reinforcement, slab systems, walls, footings, precast concrete, prestressed concrete, shell structures, folded plate members, provisions for seismic design, and an alternate design method in Appendix A.

The quality and testing of materials used in the construction are covered by reference to the appropriate standard specifications. Welding of reinforcement is covered by reference to the appropriate AWS standard. Criteria for liquid-tightness and gas-tightness testing may be found in ACI 350.1.

Keywords:

chemical attack; coatings; concrete durability; concrete finishing (fresh concrete); concrete slabs, crack width and spacing; cracking (fracturing); environmental engineering; hydraulic structures; inspection; joints (junctions); joint sealers; liners; liquid; patching; permeability; pipe columns; pipes (tubes); prestressed concrete; prestressing steels; protective coatings; reservoirs; roofs; serviceability; sewerage; solid waste facilities; tanks (containers); temperature; torque; torsion; vibration; volume change; walls; wastewater treatment; water; water-cementitious materials ratio; water supply; water treatment.

 

Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 350

Publication Year: 2021

Pages: 544

ISBN: 9781641951517

Formats: Printed Document or Protected PDF/Web View

Table of Contents

PREFACE, p. 2

INTRODUCTION, p. 3

GENERAL COMMENTARY, p. 3

CHAPTER 1—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS, p. 5

1.1—Scope, p. 5

1.2—Contract documents, p. 10

1.3—Inspection, p. 12

1.4—Approval of special systems of design or construction, p. 14

CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS, p. 15

2.1—Code notation, p. 15

2.2—Definitions, p. 34

CHAPTER 3—MATERIALS, p. 45

3.1—Tests of materials, p. 45

3.2—Cementitious materials, p. 45

3.3—Aggregates, p. 46

3.4—Water, p. 48

3.5—Steel reinforcement, p. 49

3.6—Joint accessories, p. 55

3.7—Fibers, p. 57

3.8—Admixtures, p. 58

3.9—Storage of materials, p. 60

3.10—Referenced standards, p. 60

CHAPTER 4—DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS, p. 67

4.1—General, p. 67

4.2—Exposure categories and classes, p. 70

4.4—Additional requirements for freezing-and-thawing exposures, p. 79

4.5—Additional requirements for sulfate exposures, p. 80

4.6—Additional requirements for alkali-aggregate reactions, p. 81

4.7—Additional requirements for corrosion protection of reinforcement and other metal embedments, p. 84

4.8—Additional requirements for protection against chemical attack, p. 85

4.9—Additional requirements for protection against erosion, p. 89

4.10—Protection systems, p. 90

4.11—Tightness testing of structures, p. 92

4.12—Joints, p. 92

CHAPTER 5—CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING, AND PLACING, p. 95

5.1—General, p. 95

5.2—Selection of proportions, p. 96

5.3—Proportioning concrete on the basis of field experience or trial mixtures, or both, p. 97

5.4—Proportioning shotcrete on the basis of field experience or trial mixtures, or both, p. 102

5.5—Average compressive strength reduction for concrete, p. 106

5.6—Average compressive strength reduction for shotcrete, p. 107

5.7—Evaluation and acceptance of concrete and shotcrete, p. 107

5.8—Preparation of equipment and place of deposit, p. 113

5.9—Mixing, p. 114

5.10—Conveying concrete and wet-mix shotcrete, p. 115

5.11—Depositing of concrete, p. 115

5.12—Application of shotcrete, p. 116

5.13—Curing, p. 116

5.14—Cold weather requirements, p. 118

5.15—Hot weather requirements, p. 118

CHAPTER 6—FORMWORK AND EMBEDMENTS, p. 119

6.1—Design of formwork, p. 119

6.2—Removal of forms, shores, and reshoring, p. 119

6.3—Embedments in concrete and shotcrete, p. 121

CHAPTER 7—JOINTS, p. 123

7.1—Jointing, p. 123

7.2—Construction joints, p. 128

7.3—Crack-inducing joints, p. 129

7.4—Movement joints, p. 130

7.5—Joint accessories, p. 131

CHAPTER 8—ANALYSIS AND DESIGN – GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS, p. 137

8.1—Design methods, p. 137

8.2—Loading, p. 137

8.3—Methods of analysis, p. 138

8.4—Redistribution of moments in continuous flexural members, p. 139

8.5—Modulus of elasticity, p. 141

8.6—Lightweight concrete, p. 141

8.7—Stiffness, p. 142

8.8—Effective stiffness to determine lateral deflections, p. 142

8.9—Span length, p. 143

8.10—Columns, p. 144

8.11—Arrangement of live load, p. 144

8.12—T-beam construction, p. 145

8.13—Joist construction, p. 145

8.14—Separate floor finish, p. 146

CHAPTER 9—STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS, p. 147

9.1—General, p. 147

9.2—Required strength, p. 147

9.3—Design strength, p. 152

9.4—Design strength for reinforcement, p. 156

9.5—Control of deflections, p. 156

CHAPTER 10—FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS, p. 163

10.1—Scope, p. 163

10.2—Design assumptions, p. 163

10.3—General principles and requirements, p. 165

10.4—Distance between lateral supports of flexural members, p. 167

10.5—Minimum reinforcement of flexural members, p. 168

10.6—Distribution of flexural reinforcement, p. 168

10.7—Deep beams, p. 172

10.8—Design dimensions for compression members, p. 173

10.9—Limits for reinforcement of compression members, p. 173

10.10—Slenderness effects in compression members, p. 175

10.11—Axially loaded members supporting slab system, p. 182

10.12—Transmission of column loads through floor system, p. 182

10.13—Composite compression members, p. 183

10.14—Bearing strength, p. 185

CHAPTER 11—SHEAR AND TORSION, p. 187

11.1—Shear strength, p. 187

11.2—Shear strength provided by concrete for nonprestressed members, p. 190

11.3—Shear strength provided by concrete for prestressed members, p. 192

11.4—Shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, p. 195

11.5—Design for torsion, p. 200

11.6—Shear-friction, p. 210

11.7—Deep beams, p. 214

11.8—Provisions for brackets and corbels, p. 214

11.9—Provisions for walls, p. 218

11.10—Transfer of moments to columns, p. 220

11.11—Provisions for slabs and footings, p. 220

CHAPTER 12—REINFORCEMENT—DETAILS, DEVELOPMENT, AND SPLICES, p. 233

12.1—Standard hooks, p. 233

12.2—Minimum bend diameters, p. 233

12.3—Bending, p. 234

12.4—Surface conditions of reinforcement, p. 234

12.5—Placing reinforcement, p. 235

12.6—Spacing limits for reinforcement, p. 236

12.7—Concrete protection for reinforcement, p. 237

12.8—Development, p. 242

12.9—Splices, p. 262

12.10—Lateral reinforcement, p. 270

12.11—Reinforcement details for columns, p. 274

12.12—Connections, p. 274

12.13—Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, p. 275

12.14—Requirements for structural integrity, p. 282

CHAPTER 13—EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT STRUCTURES, p. 285

13.1—General requirements, p. 285

13.2—Ordinary moment frames, p. 292

13.4—Intermediate precast structural walls, p. 298

13.5—Flexural members of special moment frames, p. 298

13.6—Special moment frame members subjected to bending and axial load, p. 305

13.7—Joints of special moment frames, p. 309

13.8—Special moment frames constructed using precast concrete, p. 312

13.9—Special structural walls and coupling beams, p. 314

13.10—Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete, p. 323

13.11—Structural diaphragms and trusses, p. 323

13.12—Foundations, p. 328

13.13—Members not designated as part of the seismic force-resisting system, p. 330

CHAPTER 14—TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS, p. 333

14.1—Scope, p. 333

14.2—General, p. 334

14.3—Slab reinforcement, p. 334

14.4—Openings in slab systems, p. 338

14.5—Design procedures, p. 339

14.6—Direct design method, p. 342

14.7—Equivalent frame method, p. 348

CHAPTER 15—WALLS, p. 353

15.1—Scope, p. 353

15.2—General, p. 353

15.3—Walls prestressed circumferentially by wrapping with high-strength steel wire or strand, p. 353

15.4—Minimum reinforcement, p. 356

15.5—Walls designed as compression members, p. 357

15.6—Empirical Design Method, p. 357

15.7—Minimum wall thickness, p. 359

15.8—Walls as grade beams, p. 359

CHAPTER 16—FOOTINGS, p. 361

16.1—Scope, p. 361

16.2—Loads and reactions, p. 361

16.3—Footings supporting circular or regular polygon-shaped columns or pedestals, p. 362

16.4—Moment in footings, p. 362

16.5—Shear in footings, p. 362

16.6—Development of reinforcement in footings, p. 364

16.7—Minimum footing depth, p. 364

16.8—Transfer of force at base of column, wall, or reinforced pedestal, p. 364

16.9—Sloped or stepped footings, p. 366

16.10—Combined footings and mats, p. 366

CHAPTER 17—PRECAST CONCRETE, p. 369

17.1—Scope, p. 369

17.2—General, p. 369

17.3—Distribution of forces among members, p. 370

17.4—Member design, p. 371

17.5—Structural integrity, p. 371

17.6—Connection and bearing design, p. 373

17.7—Items embedded after concrete placement, p. 375

17.8—Marking and identification, p. 375

17.9—Handling, p. 375

17.10—Strength evaluation of precast construction, p. 376

CHAPTER 18—COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS, p. 377

18.1—Scope, p. 377

18.2—General, p. 377

18.3—Shoring, p. 378

18.4—Vertical shear strength, p. 378

18.5—Horizontal shear strength, p. 378

18.6—Ties for horizontal shear, p. 379

CHAPTER 19—PRESTRESSED CONCRETE, p. 381

19.1—Scope, p. 381

19.2—General, p. 382

19.3—Design assumptions, p. 383

19.4—Serviceability requirements—flexural members, p. 385

19.5—Permissible stresses in prestressing steel, p. 388

19.6—Loss of prestress, p. 388

19.7—Flexural strength, p. 390

19.8—Limits for reinforcement of flexural members, p. 391

19.9—Minimum bonded reinforcement, p. 392

19.10—Statically indeterminate structures, p. 394

19.11—Compression members—combined flexure and axial loads, p. 395

19.12—Slab systems, p. 397

19.13—Post-tensioned tendon anchorage zones, p. 399

19.14—Design of anchorage zones for monostrand or single 5/8 in. diameter bar tendons, p. 404

19.15—Design of anchorage zones for multistrand tendons, p. 405

19.16—Corrosion protection for unbonded single-strand prestressing tendons, p. 406

19.17—Post-tensioning ducts, p. 408

19.18—Grout for bonded tendons, p. 408

19.19—Protection for prestressing steel, p. 410

19.20—Application and measurement of prestressing force, p. 410

19.21—Post-tensioning anchorages and couplers, p. 411

19.22—External post-tensioning, p. 412

CHAPTER 20—SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMBERS, p. 413

20.1—Scope and definitions, p. 413

20.2—Analysis and design, p. 415

20.3—Design strength of materials, p. 420

20.4—Shell reinforcement, p. 420

20.5—Construction, p. 422

CHAPTER 21—LIQUID-CONTAINING GROUND-SUPPORTED SLABS, p. 423

21.1—Scope, p. 423

21.2—Slab support, p. 424

21.3—Slab thickness, p. 425

21.4—Reinforcement, p. 426

21.5—Joints, p. 426

21.6—Hydrostatic uplift, p. 427

21.7—Curing, p. 427

CHAPTER 22—STRENGTH EVALUATION AND CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES, p. 429

22.1—General, p. 429

22.2—Determination of required dimensions and material properties, p. 431

22.3—Condition survey of structures, p. 432

22.4—Field and laboratory testing, p. 433

22.5—Tightness testing, p. 434

22.6—Evaluation report, p. 434

22.7—Load testing, p. 435

APPENDIX A—ALTERNATE DESIGN METHOD, p. 437

A.1—Scope, p. 437

A.2—General, p. 438

A.3—Allowable stresses at service loads, p. 438

A.4—Development and splices of reinforcement, p. 440

A.5—Flexure, p. 440

A.6—Compression members with or without flexure, p. 441

A.7—Shear and torsion, p. 441

APPENDIX B—STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS, p. 447

B.1—Definitions, p. 447

B.2—Strut-and-tie model design procedure, p. 453

B.3—Strength of struts, p. 455

B.4—Strength of ties, p. 458

B.5—Strength of nodal zones, p. 460

APPENDIX C—ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS, p. 463

APPENDIX D—ALTERNATIVE LOAD FACTORS, STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT, p. 471

APPENDIX E—ANCHORING TO CONCRETE, p. 479

E.1—Definitions, p. 479

E.2—Scope, p. 483

E.3—General requirements, p. 484

E.4—General requirements for strength of anchors, p. 491

E.5—Design requirements for tensile loading, p. 497

E.6—Design requirements for shear loading, p. 509

E.7—Interaction of tensile and shear forces, p. 519

E.8—Required edge distances, spacings, and thicknesses to preclude splitting failure, p. 519

E.9—Installation and inspection of anchors, p. 521

COMMENTARY REFERENCES, p. 527

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