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309.3R-92: Guide to Consolidation of Concrete in Congested Areas (Reapproved 1997)

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** WITHDRAWN DOCUMENT - This document has been discontinued by ACI and is available for informational purposes only.


This guide is primarily directed toward architects/engineers and constructors. It describes various situations where design requirements result in highly congested forms that impede the consolidation of concrete. Techniques to overcome these difficulties are presented. The guide also identifies two constructors various placing and consolidation conditions with proposed solutions as special procedures and mixture proportions. The guide also alerts constructors to closely review design drawings where congested areas are expected to ensure appropriate allowances have been included in their bids.


Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 309

Publication Year: 2017

Pages: 10

ISBN: 9780870313264

Categories: Consolidation

Formats: PDF

This document is Withdrawn

Table of Contents

Chapter 1--Introduction

Chapter 2--Criteria for designation as a congested area

2.1--Reinforcing steel

2.2--Embedments and boxouts



Chapter 3--Factors contributing to congestion problems

3.1--Reinforcing steel arrangement

3.2--Embedded parts/boxouts


3.4--Mix proportioning

3.5--Concrete placing methods

3.6--Construction considerations

3.7--Tunnel linings

Chapter 4--Consequences of congested areas in concrete construction

4.1--Honeycombed concrete

4.2--Reduced density

4.3--Increased cleaning costs

4.4--Increased formwork costs

4.5--Increased placing costs

Chapter 5--Recommended practices

5.1--Design considerations

5.2--Construction considerations


Chapter 6--References

6.1--Specified and/or recommended references

6.2--Cited reference


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