306R-16 Guide to Cold Weather Concreting

306R-16 Guide to Cold Weather Concreting

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Description

This document guides specifiers, contractors, and concrete producers through the selection processes that identify methods for cold weather concreting. The objectives of cold weather concreting practices are to: a) prevent damage to concrete due to freezing at early ages; b) ensure that the concrete develops the recommended strength for safe removal of forms; c) maintain curing conditions that foster normal strength development; d) limit rapid temperature changes; and e) provide protection consistent with intended serviceability of the structure. Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy intended service requirements when it is properly proportioned, produced, placed, and protected.

Keywords: accelerating admixtures; antifreeze admixtures; cold weather concreting; concrete temperature; curing; enclosures; form removal; freezing and thawing; heaters; heating aggregates; insulating materials; maturity testing; protection; strength development.

 

Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 306

Publication Year: 2016

Pages: 24.00

ISBN: 9781945487156

Categories: Cold Weather

Formats: Printed Document, PDF, Protected PDF/Web View, or Kindle

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE

1.1—Introduction

1.2—Scope

CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

2.1—Notation

2.2—Definitions

CHAPTER 3—OBJECTIVES, PRINCIPLES, AND ECONOMY

3.1—Objectives

3.2—Principles

3.3—Economy

CHAPTER 4—GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1—Planning

4.2—Protection during unexpected freezing

4.3—Concrete temperature

4.4—Temperature records

4.5—Heated enclosures

4.6—Slab finishing

4.7—Concrete workability

CHAPTER 5—TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE AS MIXED AND PLACED, AND HEATING OF MATERIALS

5.1—Placement temperature

5.2—Mixing temperature

5.3—Heating mixing water

5.4—Heating aggregates

5.5—Steam heating of aggregates

5.6—Overheating of aggregates

5.7—Calculation of mixture temperature

5.8—Temperature loss during delivery

CHAPTER 6—PREPARATION BEFORE CONCRETING

6.1—Preparation of surfaces in contact with fresh concrete

6.2—Massive metallic embedments

6.3—Subgrade condition

CHAPTER 7—PROTECTION AGAINST FREEZING FOR CONCRETE NOT REQUIRING CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTS

7.1—Protection methods

7.2—Protection period

7.3—Protection period for durability

7.4—Protection for strength gain

7.5—Temperature drop after removal of protection

7.6—Allowable temperature differential during stripping

CHAPTER 8—PROTECTION AGAINST FREEZING FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE REQUIRING CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTS

8.1—Introduction

8.2—Field-cured cylinders

8.3—In-place testing

8.4—Maturity testing

8.5—Attainment of design strength

8.6—Increasing early strength

8.7—Cooling concrete

8.8—Estimating strength development

8.9—Removal of forms and supports

8.10—Estimating strength development: modeling cold weather placements

CHAPTER 9—EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, AND METHODS OF TEMPERATURE PROTECTION

9.1—Introduction

9.2—Insulating materials

9.3—Selection of insulation when supplementary heat is not used

9.4—Selection of insulation for use with hydronic heaters

9.5—Heaters

9.6—Enclosures

9.7—Internal heating

9.8—Temperature monitoring

9.9—Temporary removal of protection

9.10—Insulated forms

CHAPTER 10—CURING RECOMMENDATIONS AND METHODS

10.1—Introduction

10.2—Curing during the protection period inside an enclosure

10.3—Curing following the protection period

CHAPTER 11—ACCELERATION OF SETTING AND STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

11.1—Introduction

11.2—Accelerating admixtures

11.3—Cold weather admixture systems (CWASs)

11.4—Rapid setting cements

CHAPTER 12—REFERENCES

Authored documents

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