225R-16 Guide to the Selection and Use of Hydraulic Cements

225R-16 Guide to the Selection and Use of Hydraulic Cements

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Description

Cement is the most active component of concrete and usually has the greatest unit cost; therefore, its selection and proper use is imperative to attaining the desired balance of properties and cost for a particular concrete mixture. Selection should include consideration of the cement properties in relation to the required performance of the concrete. This guide covers the influence of cement on the properties of concrete, summarizing the composition and availability of commercial hydraulic cements and the factors affecting their performance in concrete. It includes a discussion of cement types, a brief review of cement chemistry, the influences of chemical admixtures and supplementary cementitious materials, and the effects of the environment on cement performance, and reviews the sustainability aspects for the use and manufacture of portland cement. Cement storage, delivery, sampling, and testing of hydraulic cements for conformance to specifications are addressed. Users will learn to recognize when a readily available, general-purpose cement will perform satisfactorily or when conditions require selection of a cement that meets additional requirements.

Keywords: admixture; blended cement; calcium-aluminate cement; cement storage; cement types; chemical analysis; hydraulic cement; pozzolan; physical properties; portland cement; slag cement; supplemental cementitious materials; sustainability.

Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 225

Publication Year: 2016

Pages: 36

ISBN: 9781945487163

Categories: Cementitious Materials

Formats: Printed Document, PDF, ePub, or Kindle

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE

1.1—Introduction

1.2—Scope

CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

2.1—Notation

2.2—Definitions

CHAPTER 3—CEMENT TYPES, AVAILABILITY, AND SELECTION

3.1—Portland and blended hydraulic cements

3.2—Special-purpose

3.3—Research and development

3.4—Rational approach to selection

CHAPTER 4—CEMENT CHEMISTRY

4.1—Portland cement

4.2—Blended hydraulic

4.3—Shrinkage-compensating expansive

4.4—Calcium-aluminate

CHAPTER 5—INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES, POZZOLANS, AND SLAG CEMENTS ON CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEMS

5.1—Air-entraining admixtures

5.2—Other chemical admixtures

5.3—Pozzolans

5.4—Slag cements

CHAPTER 6—INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE HYDRATION OF CEMENTS

6.1—Water requirements

6.2—Temperature effects

6.3—Composition

CHAPTER 7—INFLUENCE OF CEMENT ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES

7.1—Thermal cracking

7.2—Placeability

7.3—Strength

7.4—Volume stability

7.5—Elastic properties

7.6—Creep

7.7—Permeability

7.8—Corrosion of embedded steel

7.9—Resistance to freezing and thawing

7.10—Resistance to chemical attack

7.11—Resistance to high temperatures

7.12—Cement-aggregate reactions

7.13—Color

CHAPTER 8—CEMENT STORAGE AND DELIVERY

8.1—Storage

8.2—Pack set (sticky cement)

8.3—Delivery

8.4—Contamination and handling

8.5—Worker protection

CHAPTER 9—SAMPLING AND TESTING OF HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FOR CONFORMANCE TO SPECIFICATIONS

9.1—Cement mill test report

9.2—Sealed silos

9.3—Cement certification

9.4—Quality management

CHAPTER 10—SUSTAINABILITY ASPECTS OF HYDRAULIC CEMENTS

10.1—Hydraulic cements

10.2—Energy consumption

10.3—Use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) as replacement for portland cement

10.4—Use of cement in concrete

10.5—Recycled raw materials as raw feed in the manufacture of portland cement

10.6—Alternate fuels

10.7—Combustion emissions

10.8—Recent progress and strategy

CHAPTER 11—REFERENCES

Authored documents

APPENDIX A—CALCIUM-ALUMINATE CEMENTS

A.1—Manufacture and properties

A.2—Influences of admixtures and supplementary cementitious materials

A.3—Influence of environment

A.4—Heat of hydration

A.5—Setting characteristics

A.6—Strength

A.7—Resistance to chemical attack

A.8—Resistance to high temperatures

ERRATA INFO

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