Cracking of Mass Concrete Placed Underwater

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Title: Cracking of Mass Concrete Placed Underwater

Author(s): Terence C. Holland and Ben C. Gerwick, Jr.

Publication: Concrete International

Volume: 5

Issue: 4

Appears on pages(s): 29-36

Keywords: cracking (fracturing); mass concrete; temperature; thermal properties; tremie concrete; under-water construction.

Date: 4/1/1983

Abstract:
Engineers have long given special attention to thermal problems associated with most massive concrete placements, yet thermal problems of one class have routinely been ignored. These placements are those made under water by tremie or other means for structural or nonstructural elements of bridge piers and similar structures. A study of underwater concrete placement was recently completed at the University of California, Berkeley. Involving construction of the substructure of a Columbia River bridge, the study included that of a tremie placed seal for Pier 12. Temperature predictions, instrumentation, and actual measured temperatures in the seal, and a refined finite-element temperature prediction technique are described. Also discussed is the significance of the temperatures which develop in concrete placed under water as well as techniques for minimizing these temperatures.