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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: THE Microscopic Structure of Hydrated Portland Cement
Author(s): L. T. Brownmiller
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 193-212
Abstract:Microphotographs illustrate the structure of neat hydrated portland cements as seen in reflected light. They show that a considerable amount of unhydrated cement remains in Type I and Type II cements after hydration for 28 days. Type I II cements show much smaller percentages of unhydrated material even at earlier ages. Most of the principal constituents of the original clinker can be recognized in the unhydrated fractions. The photographs give no evidence that any major constituent of the cement is selectively or completely hydrated at any age. The rate of hydration depends more specifically on the surface exposed to the action of the water than on the chemical constitution. The effects of laitance formation are shown by illus-trations of the difference in particle size distribution in the laitance as compared to that within the main body of the cement. Other photoaraphs show the size, amount, and dis- tribution ’ of the Ca(OH) z which i’s liberated during the hvdration processes. It is estimated that about 15 oercent of Ca(OH)? has formed at 28 days in the cements examined. ’ the polishing and etchfng tech- niaue described could be applied readily for the preparation of specimens for’ accurate measurement o f t h e Ca(OH) 2 by mechanical devices such as a Wentworth micrometer. The final photographs show some detail of the structure of the hydrates other than the Ca(OH)z. That structure is extremely complicated, but a further development of microscopic technique should be useful in solving some of the riddles which confront cement technicians in attempting to evaluate cements on the basis of performance in concrete.
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