Influence of Sands, Cements, and Manipulation upon the
Resistance to Concrete Freezing and Thawing
W. C. Hansen
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This investigation was undertaken to determine the extent to which the resistance o fconcrete to frost action is influenced by the following variables: (I) different cements when used with the same sand: (2) different sands when used with the same cementi (3) excessive manipulation. Four sands, four cements, and one coarse aggregate were used in making concretes of four different consistencies. Strengths, absorptions, and resistance to freezing and thawing were determined on all specimens. The study showed that the influence of both sand and cement on the resistance of concrete to freezing alrd thawing is determined by their influence on the amount of mixing water required to give the desired consistency and their effect on the bleeding characteristics of the concrete. It was further brought out that manipulation of the surface will not have a marked influence on the resistance if the water-cement ratio in the surface mortar is not increased thereby. A good relationship was shown between the 48-hr absorption of specimens dried 14 days in air and the resistance of the concrete to frost action.