T. C. Powers
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Following field tests of internal vibrators, laboratory investigations of the relation of strength to cement voids ratio, of the proper mix characteristics for vibration, and freezing and thawing tests were made. It was found that for a mix to be placed successfully by vibration it must be plastic or become plastic under vibration. The relationship between the cement voids (voids - water plus air) ratio is substantially the same for vibrated as for hand-placed concrete.