Sulfate Attack on Concrete in the Oslo Region

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Title: Sulfate Attack on Concrete in the Oslo Region

Author(s): Johan Moum and I. T. Rosenqvist

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 56

Issue: 9

Appears on pages(s): 257-264

Keywords: none

Date: 9/1/1959

Abstract:
In the Oslo region of Norway, alum shales containing small amounts of the unstable iron sulfide, pyrrhotite, pro- duce an unusual form of sulfate attack upon concrete placed in or near these deposits, and cause deterioration if they are used as concrete aggregate. The ground water associated with the alum shales carries ferrous sulfate and produces severe sulfate attack and the precipitation of ferric iron compounds in concrete structures made with normal portland cement. Cements of low tricalcium alumi- nate content resist the sulfate attack but may be subject to attack by acid solutions produced when the ferrous sulfate is oxidized. Air-entrained concrete appears to be particularly susceptible.