Proportioning Fly Ash Concrete Mixes For Strength and Economy

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Title: Proportioning Fly Ash Concrete Mixes For Strength and Economy

Author(s): Robert W. Cannon

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 65

Issue: 11

Appears on pages(s): 969-979

Keywords: air content;carbon analysis;cement content;cements;compressive strength;concretes;compressive strength;concretes;costs;fineness;fly ash;mix proportioning;slump tests;specific surface;water-cement ratio;water content; water reducing agents.

Date: 11/1/1968

Abstract:
A method is presented for proportioning fly ash with cement to produce concrete of equal strengths at 28 and 90 days to concrete without fly ash. The method was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) as a result of using fly ash in all classes of concrete for the past 12 years. Effects of differing proportions of fly ash on water requirements, strength, and economy are given along with a discussion of the effects of fineness and carbon content of fly ash and variations in strength of cements on cement requirements. Comparisons are made between the cement requirements as determined by this method with the cement actually required by tests from the Corps of Engineers, TVA, and Bays Mountain Construction Company using at least nine different suppliers of cement and eight different fly ashes, four of which would not meet Federal and ASTM specifications.