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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Systems Approach to Concrete Durability
Author(s): N. S. Berke, M. C. Hicks and K. J. Folliard
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1293-1316
Keywords: Admixtures; calcium; chlorides; corrosion; durability; epoxy resins;permeability; pozzolans; reinforcing steels; shrinkage; silica fume.
Abstract:Reinforced concrete is one of the most durable building materials in use today. However, it is often used in applications in which it is subjected to chloride ingress. When the chloride reaches the reinforcing steel corrosion initiates and the subsequent expansive corrosion products cause the concrete to crack or spall. This results in an acceleration of the corrosion and the need for repair. Numerous approaches have been utilized to prevent corrosion of embedded steel in concrete. Data from long-term laboratory tests over periods exceeding 3 years are presented for several commonly used methods to extend durability against corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The data show that reducing concrete permeability to chloride ingress by lowering the water-to-cement ratio or adding pozzolans are not sufficient for long-term performance in severe chloride environments. Furthermore, some of these mixture designs can result in increased shrinkage and thermal cracking compromising long-term performance. The conclusions from the studies performed in our laboratory are that a systems approach is needed for long-term durability for steel reinforced concrete in severe chloride exposures. It starts with low permeability concrete mixture designs that have reduced drying and thermal shrinkage. Corrosion inhibitors are added to protect the reinforcing steel which may or may not be coated. This is known as a ‘belt and suspenders approach, and has the added advantage of being amenable to modeling.
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