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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Twenty-Five Years’ Experience Using Fly Ash in Concrete
Author(s): Joseph F. Lamond
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 47-70
Keywords: bleeding (concrete); compressive strength; concrete
durability; flexural strength; fly ash; freeze-thaw durability; fresh concrete; hardened concrete; gravity dams; mix proportioning;
Abstract:The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has used fly ash as amaterial that partially replaces portland cement in concrete for twenty-five years. Initially research was performed on use offly on concrete properties for bleeding, permeability, heat rise, resistance to freezing and thawing, elasticity, and compressive and flexural strength development. Those properties affected by partial replacement of portland cement with fly ash were heat rise in mass concrete, resistance to freezing and thawing and strength development. The concrete materials properties of three massive concrete gravity dams are reported. Since construction, these dams have been periodically inspected. Although these structures have some minor cracking, spalling, and erosion, their performance has been similar to other concrete gravity dams constructed using concrete without fly ash. Cost savings per cubic yard of concrete has been the benefit derived from using fly ash as a partial cement replacement material in massive concrete structures. Fly ash is specified to conform to ASTM C618, Class C or Class F with modifications to this specification as needed based on location or type of structure. Fly ash may replace portland cement up to 35 percent by absolute volume in interior mass concrete and 25 percent by absolute volume in exterior mass concrete and in structural concrete. Fly ash concrete has performed satisfactorily on Corps of Engineers projects over the last twenty-five years.
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