Title: Durability of Concrete Structures Along the North Sea Coast of The Netherlands
Author(s): J. G. Wiebenga
Publication: Symposium Paper
Appears on pages(s): 437-452
Keywords: carbonation; cement content; chlorides; compressive strength; concrete durability; corrosion; cover; cracking (fracturing); crazing; deterioration; marine atmospheres; porosity; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; sea water; spalling; weathering.
Inspections were carried out on 64 normal weight reinforced concrete structures situated along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. Nearly all had been made with various amounts of blast furnace slag cement. At the time of inspection the ages ranged from 3 to 63 years. Visible signs of deterioration above the low water level were looked for, such as, spalling of the concrete surface, corrosion of the reinforcement and cracks. Also, the concrete cover and the depth of the carbonation were measured at some places. From 5 of these structures cores of 16 to 49 year old concrete were taken, and their compressive strength, the depth of carbonation, total porosity and cement content were determined. In addition, the amount of chloride penetrated into the concrete as a function of the depth was measured, both away from cracks and near cracks. Conclusions are given herein as to which properties appear to be decisive for the durability of such structures in the sea environment.