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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Definition and Control of Surface Tolerances on Bridge Decks and Textured Pavements During Construction
Author(s): S. A. Face and W. G. Rooke
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 797-814
Keywords: bridge decks; concrete construction; concrete pavements;
flatness; measurement; specifications; tolerances (mechanics)
Abstract:The Face Floor Profile Numbering system has been adopted by ACI committees 117 (Tolerances) and 302 (Construction of Floors) for the specification and control of concrete floor flatness and levelness tolerances. This paper discusses the application of this concept and attendant technology to tolerance control required for textured surfaces commonly found on bridge decks, bonded concrete overlays and concrete or asphalt pavements. The techniques and field applications described provide a mathematically sound, rapid, repeatable, and documentable analysis of the relative degree of flatness of any surface. The techniques supercede the traditional but ambiguous and argument-ative 3-metre straight-edge. The paper discusses the fundamental mathematics behind the F-Number concept and describes field evaluation with sequential differential elevation instrumentation of numerous existing and newly-poured concrete bridge decks. Particular attention is paid to interpretation of the measurements obtained from surfaces at constant slopes and cross-falls, as well as on vertically curved surfaces and super-elevations. The field tests to date reveal that the technique has universal application to paved surfaces of all kinds and provides, within hours, a definitive manner of statistically analyzing the degree of flatness attained by particular placement techniques. Suggestions for revised contract tolerance specifications are outlined for flatness control of surfaces used by high speed traffic. Similarities and differences from concrete floor tolerance controls are discussed.
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