In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Premature Concrete Deterioration in Texas Department of Transportation Precast Elements
Author(s): B. L. Lawrence, J. J. Myers, and R. L. Carrasquillo
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 141-158
Keywords: alkali-silica reaction; calcium aluminates; cast-in-place concrete; chert;
ettringite; silica; steam curing; sulfate attack
Abstract:The occurrence of premature concrete deterioration found in Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) precast concrete elements and other types of concrete structures found in Texas has prompted TxDOT to conduct an investigation into the cause of this deterioration. TxDOT’s investigation of 69 prestressed concrete box beams, of which 56 are exhibiting various degrees of deterioration, includes a historical documentation review, chemical analysis and petrographic examination with both optical and scanning electron microprob microscopy. The cement mill that supplied the cement for the 56 beams that are deteriorating conducted an independent investigation. An overview of both investigations is presented. The investigation conducted by TxDOT revealed distress associated with pasted expansion. Ettringite was found throughout the concrete samples in the voids, cracks, gaps around aggregate particles and concentrations or nests exclusively within the cement paste. The presence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was also observed but little if any distress could be conclusively attributed to the ASR. The cement manufacturer’s investigation concluded that the main cause of distress was ASR and that delayed ettringite formation occurred as a secondary mechanism most likely resulting from poor construction practices. The varying conclusions of TxDOT’s and the cement manufacturer’s investigations typify the polarization of industry nation wide if not world wide over similar case studies involving this phenomenon described herein as premature concrete deterioration. Accordingly, the conclusion of this paper addresses some of the ramifications of not attaining a resolution to this problem.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber