In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Present State of Investigation on Damaging late Ettringite Formation (DLEF) in Mortars and Concretes
Author(s): D. Heinz, M. Kalde, U. Ludwig , and I. Ruediger
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1-14
Keywords: fly ash; hydraulic cements; pozzolans; sulfates; tests; wetting and
Abstract:Since the past 25 to 30 years, preferably heat treated precast concrete members (> 70 “C) manufactured with high early strength Portland Cements with higher sulphate contents, under adverse exposure conditions have some-times exhibited structural damage in the form of map cracking and loss of strength. These damages are characterized as Damaging Late Ettringite Formation (DLEF) (1). The cause for the increased occurrence of DLEF starting about 1970 is to our opinion the world wide increase of the permissible sulphate contents of the Portland-Cements (2-5). It is important that 1 wt.-% SO3 can form 5 wt.-% of ettringite or 7.7 wt.-% thaumasite. In “German directions“ a maximum heat treatment (HT) temperature of 80°C is specified for concrete exposed to dry environmental conditions. For concrete‘ exposed to intermediate or permanent wet conditions, a maximum HT temperature of 60°C is specified. Though the standard does not provide clear directions, if is believed that cements containing pozzolanic admixtures can be subjected to more intensive HT (6). DLEF is caused by a formation, destruction and a later renewed forma-tion of ettringite occuring preferably after HT at > 70°C of pastes, mortars and concretes made with high strength Portland cements. - Very early start of HT showed no significant influence on DLEF. Late or repeated HT resulted in more severe or repeated damaging. - Humidities < 95 % at 20°C resulted up to 780 d of starage in no DLEF. - After treatment with interim some FTC and/or cured at low temperatures provoked more early and severe destruction.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber