In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
ACI World Headquarters
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
ACI Middle East Regional Office
Second Floor, Office # 02.01/07
The Offices 02 Building, One Central
Dubai World Trade Center Complex
Phone: +971.4.516.3208 & 3209
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: De-king Salt Scaling of Concrete Incorporating Different Types and Percentages of Fly Ashes
Author(s): M.H. Zhang, A. Bilodeau, G. Shen and V.H. Malhotra
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 493-526
Keywords: absorption; concrete; curing; deicers; fly ash; freeze-thaw durability;
Abstract:This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of the water- to-(cement+fly ash) ratio, fly ash content, fly ash type, and curing compounds on the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete, and attempts to explain why fly ash when used in large amounts in air-entrained concrete reduces its resistance to the de-icing salt scaling. Fourteen air-entrained concrete mixtures were made in this investigation. The water-to-cementitious materials ratio of the concrete mixtures ranged from 0.32 to 0.45. Two ASTM Class F and one Class C fly ashes were included in this investigation, and the fly ash content ranged from 2.5 to 58% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Two control portland cement concrete mixtures with the water-to- cement ratios of 0.40 and 0.45 were included in this study for comparison. The type and the amount of fly ash used and the water-to-cementitious materials ratio of the concrete affect considerably the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete. In general, the resistance to the scaling decreases with increasing amounts of fly ash and increasing water-to-cementitious materials ratio. When cured with the curing compounds, both the control concrete and the concrete incorporating fly ash showed substantially less scaling than the concretes cured in the moist room. The water absorption of the moist-cured concrete seems to be related to its resistance to the de-icing salt scaling; the scaling increased with increasing water absorption. However, the concrete cured with the curing compounds had much less scaling than the concrete cured in the moist room even though the water absorption of the former concrete was higher than the latter. The microstructure of the cement paste at the on-set of the freezing and thawing appears to affect the de-icing salt scaling of the concrete.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber